All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

18 points to check for internal plastering work. / Checklist for internal plastering work. / Procedure of plastering work.

 Following are the 18 points that should be checked to achieve standard quality plasterwork.

A.  Pre plaster checklist:

1. Racking:



All the masonry joints should be checked whether it is completely racked or not. If you find any voids in the joints, they should be filled with mortar and finished.


2. Hacking:



All the concrete surfaces of the column, beam, & ceiling should be checked for their proper hacking. Any leftover should be completed as per the specification.

To know in detail about hacking, Go through the article👇

👀. What is hacking in civil construction?- Purpose & technical specification of hacking.


3. Plumbing work:

You have to ensure that all the concealed plumbing work is complete as per the drawing. The concealed pipeline should be checked for its water tightness & material quality, as per the specification.


4. Wiring:



All the concealed electrical wire work should be checked beforehand as per the given diagram. The electrical conduits, junction box, concealed switch point, etc. should be noted for their proper position.


5. Chicken mesh:


You have to check for the chicken mesh over the column, beam, & wall masonry joining line. Mesh fixing is also needed over the concealed wiring ducts, & all the concealed wall cuttings for proper bonding.


6. Material quality:

You should check for the volume of the available sand so that the next day's work should be carried away flawlessly. The selected sand & cement for the plastering work should be as per the specification & quality standards.


7. Level marking:

Level buttons ( or pads) should be made over the masonry surface at regular intervals. The thickness of the level pad at the wall corners should be taken as 12mm. The plaster thickness that may come at any given area should be checked by holding the lineout string over the buttons. 

The variation in the thickness should fall in the range of 10mm to 15mm. If you find any excess depth due to brick undulations, that area should be pre plastered to match up the level.


Checklist on plastering day:

8. Wetting:



All the masonry wall surfaces should be thoroughly sprinkled with water using a water pipe. The brick masonry should soak the water & it should look in a completely wet condition.

 This job has to be done at least 1/2 to 1 hour before the plastering work. Wall wetting helps to prevent the absorption of water from the plastered mortar.


9. Mortar mix:

Generally, the mortar mix of ratio 1:4 or 1:6 is used in plasterwork. Make volumetric batching using a farma (measuring ) box to have a uniform mix. 

The mortar should be prepared in such a volume that, it should be consumed within a 1hour period after mixing.


10. Cement slurry:

A lean cement slurry should be sprayed or sprinkled over the wall surface at the beginning of the plastering. This helps to gain a good surface adherence & bonding.


11. Scaffolding:



The firmness of the scaffolding should be checked to ensure the safety of the workers. In any condition, the plastering wall should not be used as pass-through support for the scaffolding poles. 


12. Thickness:

The thickness should be checked at a regular interval of 1hour at the time of plastering. Any extra thickness should be cut by using an aluminum level Patti. In any case, the thickness should not exceed the pre-installed level buttons. 


13. Corners:

All the corners & edges of the windows, door frames, room corners, etc. should be checked for their line & level. 

Use tri square & plumb bob at the corners to make them in perfect 90°. 


14. Plaster type:

Before starting the plasterwork, you have to go through the drawings to know the dimensions & type of plaster. The finishing of the plaster may be sponge finish, trowel finish, rough finish, etc. 

 It is better if you have the clarity of grooves & plaster band locations beforehand.


15. Finishing:

Use a spirit level to find out the uneven plaster surface. The best way is to focus the yellow light of a bulb to find out the surface undulations. The darker spot shows the needed mortar fillup in that area. Rectify all such defects before the setting time of mortar.

You have to use aluminum Patti & trowel, to make a final smooth surface. 


16. Cutouts:

The line & level of all the plaster cutouts such as skirting, junction box, electric box. etc. should be checked.


17. Cleaning:

The splashes of mortar over the door & window frames should be cleaned after the completion of days work.


18. Curing:

Curing should be started on a successive day without any delay. Minimum 10 days of curing is recommended to gain the required strength.


Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.

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12 points to check for fixing door & window frames./Checklist for fixing door & window frames.

Following are the 12 points that should be checked for the fixing of door & window frames.

 1. Size:




The length & breadth of the door & window frame should be checked to select the proper type of frames.

The building contains door openings having different dimensions. So, measure the size of the procured frames beforehand to place them accordingly.

Before proceeding further, Go through the article👇

👀. Checklist for window & door openings./ Points to check while providing door & window openings.

So that you will understand this procedure clearly.


2. Primer:

The wooden frames should be coated with anti-termite paints on all the surfaces. The wood primer should be applied as required to cover all the surfaces. 


3. Bracing:



The wooden Patti bracing should be nailed at the bottom of the door frame jamb. Two wooden Pattis are nailed diagonally at the top corners as shown in the drawing. This helps the door frame to maintain its shape in the installation process.


4. Clamping:




MS clamp or holdfast is fastened to the door & window frames on both sides.

For door frames we need       👉 6 clamps.

For window frames we need 👉 4 clamps.

The required gap in between the two holdfasts should be checked to maintain the uniform distance.


5. Position:

The door frame should be positioned in the openings according to its pre-decided location. 

For eg., if the door frame should be kept flushed to the particular wall surface, 

The positioning 👉 wall surface + plaster thickness.

Suppose if the plaster thickness is 12mm., then the door frame is kept by protruding at 12mm from the wall surface.


6. Chiseling the wall:




The brick wall masonry is chiseled or cut by marking the holdfast area of the frame. For the door frames, you have to make 6 cuts & the window may need 4 cuts in the wall.


7. Level:




After chiseling the wall, the frames are pushed to their position so that the holdfast is placed at the wall cuttings.

The top side or header of the frame should be touched to the lintel bottom. Temporary packing is provided at the bottom part of the frame.

From the top of the door frame, an equal measurement is marked on the length side of the frame. Usually, 300mm. ( 1ft. ) is marked using a marker pen. By using water tube level, the door frame is leveled by matching the two markings.


8. Plumb: 




The verticality of the frame is adjusted by using the plumb bob & spirit level. The plumbing should be checked for all 3 exposed surfaces of the frame. 


9. Support :




Once the plumbing work is finished, the door frames are tightened in that position by giving the inclined supports & wooden packs at the wall gaps. 

Recheck the level, plumb,& position of the frame after proper support is given.


10. Diagonal:




Check the internal diagonal of the frames for the reconfirmation of their rectangular shape. In the process of installation, the frames may lose their given shape. Diagonal checking helps us in the easy installation of door shutters in the future.


11. Concreting:

The brick masonry cuttings at the holdfast area are filled with proper-grade concrete. The brick masonry should be sprinkled with water or cement slurry before doing the concrete work.

Make sure, nobody passes through that entry point until the concrete is properly set.


12. Curing:

From the next day, the holdfast concreting should be cured regularly as per the required time period.

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12 points to check for PCC in the foundation. / Checklist for PCC below the footing./ Procedure of foundation PCC.

Following are the 12 points, that should be checked for the PCC work in the foundation.

 1. Strata:




After the footing excavation, you should check for the SBC of soil or strata for the laying of foundation PCC. If there are deep pockets in the strata, it should be filled with plum concrete before doing PCC.

 For the residential buildings having low bearing capacity soil, boulder soling is preferred for the stabilization of the foundation.


2. Layout:



The centerline of the column is marked & the excavated pit is checked for its correct position. The outline of the foundation is checked to mark the boundary of PCC.

If the excavation is done by the JCB, the size of the pit may be inaccurate. In that case, you have to fix the formwork box for the casting of PCC work.


3. Cleaning:

All the unwanted materials like formwork pieces, loose soils, organic debris, etc. should be removed from the footing pit. 


4. Level:

The top level of the PCC is marked at the 4 corners of the foundation pit. The depth of the PCC is considered from the highest level point of the uneven strata. 

For eg., if the PCC depth is 100mm., the top level of PCC is marked at 100mm. above the upper portion of the strata. 


5. Dewatering:




If there is any seepage of water at the footing pit, a sump is created at the lowest corner of the strata for dewatering. 

While pouring the concrete, it should be checked that the water should not rise above the strata level. The dewatering process is continued until the PCC gains its initial setting time.


6. Sprinkling:

If the strata of the excavated pit are dry without any moisture content, you have to sprinkle water before concreting. Otherwise, the strata or soil base absorbs water from the poured PCC, to make it weak having a lower strength.


7. Concrete mix:

The grade of the PCC is checked for its proportion to achieve the required consistency. The W/C ratio is maintained to prevent the segregation & bleeding of the concrete.


8. Pouring:

If the pouring depth is above 1.5m., a chute arrangement is made to prevent the segregation of concrete. Or a person should be appointed at the pit, to receive the ghamela for the casting work.


9. Compacting:

You can use wooden rammers or logs to compact the PCC. Starting from one end, take care to compact all the poured PCC without any voids.


10. Thickness:



After pouring & compacting the concrete, the top level of the PCC is checked for its required depth, and leveling is done. 


11. Top surface:

The top surface is finished by using a leveling metal Patti & lineout string. The uniform top-level is checked diagonally by holding the string at the PCC corners.


12. Curing:

From the next day, the curing process is started to gain the required strength. 


Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.


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9 things to check before painting over existing old paint./ Points to consider while repainting over old paint.

 Following are the 9 points or checklist to be observed, before repainting over the older one.

1. Type of paint:

Broadly, the paints are classified into 13 different types, depending upon their composition & application.

To know the different types of paints,    Go through the article 👇

❤ Types of paints used in civil engineering./Different types of paints used in buildings.


The most common among them are enamel paint, distemper, oil paint, cement paint, & emulsion paint.

When we repaint, if the existing paint falls under a different category, then it becomes necessary to scrape them completely. 

For eg.

1. Old paint 👉 distemper         →  new paint 👉 oil paint, → scrap the distemper.

2. Old paint 👉 oil-based paint →  new paint 👉  water-based paint, → scrap the old paint.

3. Old paint 👉 distemper         →  new paint 👉  distemper, → scrapping may not be necessary.


2. Color of paint:



If the existing paint is of a darker shade, &  now you want a lighter color, use a primer. Scrapping is not necessary if the older one is in a good look without any defects.


3. Age of the paint:

The life span of the paint is about 4 to 7 years depending upon its type & quality. If the existing paint has expired its timeline, then you have to scrape them off. Removing them enhances the look & life span of the newer paint coats.


4. Stain & dents:

If the wall has stains, wash the surface after applying the required stain remover. Fill the dents with epoxy & rub the surface with sandpapers to have a uniform finish.


5. Efflorescence:



If there is efflorescence & dampness in the wall, scrape off the whole wall. Treat those defects with suitable chemical compounds. Once the problem is eradicated, repaint with primer as a base coat.


6. Surface finish:

  Undulations & cracks over the wall base should be neatly finished by using crack fillers, epoxy, wall putty, etc. Look out for such defects by focusing light or torch over the wall. The existing paint may hide such defects when you observe them casually.


7. Peeling: 



If you find the existing paints have patches of peeling over the wall area, scrapping them is a must before repainting. Peeling indicates the weak bonding of the paint over the wall.

 If the new paint is applied directly over them, the whole coat of paint will come apart shortly.


8. Fungus & algae: 



Antifungal treatment is a must before investing in the repainting work. Otherwise, the newly painted wall will not be spared, as the paint itself does not block the fungal growth.


9. Wrinkle & flaking:



If you observe wrinkle & flaking in the older painted surface, scrape the whole area & finish them with sandpaper. The fresh paint won't last long on such surfaces.



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Does the color or shades of cement affect its strength?/ Does the color of cement decides its quality?

👀. Does the color of cement affect its quality?



 The answer is NO.

The next question that comes to your mind is,

 👀. Why the cement carries different color shades?

The cement gets its color from the raw materials used in its manufacturing process. The raw materials procured from the various mines differ in their color shades. 

So, the cement carries a particular color depending upon the 

1. Type of raw material used:

The various raw materials that are used in the manufacturing of cement are limestone, clay, bauxite, fly ash, slag, silica, gypsum, etc. The limestone acts as a primary constituent having not less than 60% in cement proportion. Out of all other pozzolanic materials, a few of them are selected to blend with the lime. 

If fly ash is used as secondary blending material while manufacturing, the color shades may be dark grey. Silica or slag blended cement may appear a light grey in color.

Whatever the raw material may be, the final chemical composition of cement of a particular type will be the same.


2. Manufacturing process:

Two types of processes are used while manufacturing the cement. They are

 1. Wet manufacturing process &

 2. Dry manufacturing process.

The color or shades of the cement is influenced by the type of process followed.


3. Location of the factory:

The geographical location of the cement factory decides the color shades of cement. The color of raw materials procured by the factory at a particular location does not match with the other manufacturing units. So, the cement of a particular brand looks different in its color when compared with the other brands.


4. Cement composition:

The composition of white cement is different from grey cement. In the production process of white cement, the percentage of iron oxide & other minerals are minimized to achieve white color.

 It does not mean that white cement has good compressive strength. The properties & strength of white cement match well with the grey cement, except for its color.


5. Type & grade of cement :

The color of PPC cement is different from that of OPC cement. Again the reason is, raw material & composition as explained above.

I think you have understood the theory behind the cement color & its strength.


Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.

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What is a bottom door seal ? - Their application & different types.

 👀. What is a door bottom seal?

Door seals are the accessories, used to cover the openings at the bottom part of the door. They can be used for all types of doors to block unwanted bottom openings. 

When the doors are hinged, a gap is provided from the floor level for the easy swing of the door. If the door lacks a threshold in its frame, you will find the openings at the bottom part, which is unavoidable.

 So, to cover these openings without disturbing the operation of the door, we use a door seal as shown in the image below. 


The bottom door seals are also known by the names bottom door sweeps or bottom door shoes. 


 👀.  Why do we need bottom door seals?

The door seals are needed

1. To prevent the entry of insects & cockroaches from the door bottom.




2. To block the breeze or cool air from entering the room.

3. To avoid the light from entering the building.

4. The door seal helps to block the sound from the adjacent room to a certain extent.

5. To block the wastage of energy from air-conditioned rooms. 


👀. How to install door bottom seals?

For aluminum door sweeps:

1. The bottom width of the door is measured with a measuring tape.

2. The aluminum strip of the door seal is marked to the required door size & cut by using a hacksaw or cutter tool.

3. The vinyl sweep is cut to the size & slid in the aluminum strip.

4. The aluminum strip is screwed to the bottom door part so that the vinyl sweep touches the floor surface.


For adhesive door sweeps:

1. Instead of screwing, the self-adhesive strip of the door sweep is fixed to the door bottom.

2. Before installing, the door bottom surface should be cleaned or washed for good bonding.


For double draft & strip door seals:

1. They are fixed at the door bottom by sliding action without much effort.

All types of bottom door seals are DIY attachments, consuming lesser effort & time for installation.


👀. What are the different types of door bottom seals?

There are 5 types of bottom door seals.

1. Aluminum door sweeps:

a. Brush door sweep.

The aluminum plate or strip is attached with a nylon brush which can be easily detached by sliding. The brush sweeps & cleans the dust beneath the door. The brush also blocks the door bottom opening. The drawback of brush sweeps is they wear out over time & are not efficient when compared to flat door sweeps.


To view this brand of brush door sweep on Amazon, click here.


b. Flat door sweep.

Instead of a nylon brush, the aluminum plate is attached with a rubber base to seal the opening. They have a royal look when compared to the brush door sweep. Other than rubber, the base materials used are silicone & vinyl, having varied colors.


To view this brand of flat door sweep on Amazon, click here.


2. Adhesive door seal:

These types of door seals do not have a separate aluminum strip to hold the sealing base. The door seal is stuck to the door bottom by self-adhesive strips. 


To view this brand of adhesive door sweep on Amazon, click here.


3. Double draft seals:

The fabric sleeve holds the foam cylinder on both sides of the door. When the door is moved, they easily glide over all types of floor surfaces. These types of door seals also act as door stoppers.

To view this brand of adhesive door sweep on Amazon, click here.


4. Strip door seal:

All types of strip door seals work well for the smaller door bottom openings. If your door opening is above 6mm., then strip door seals are not a suitable choice. They are available in different shapes like L- shape, V-shape, & E-shape designs. This is the best-chosen option for the glass doors.

To view this brand of adhesive door sweep on Amazon, click here.


5. Weather stripping:
If you are thinking of sealing all your door & window gaps, then this will be the cheaper option. Weather-strips are available in larger-length rolls at a better price. You have to peel the back of the adhesive strip & stick to the gap surface wherever necessary.

To view this brand of adhesive door sweep on Amazon, click here.


Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.


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Why do we have to break pile head after casting?/ Reason for breaking the pile head till cutoff level.

You might have noticed that after casting the pile, the top part of the pile is chipped to a certain level. 


Always, the head part of the pile, up to the cutoff level is broken after casting.

As you can observe in the below drawing, a tremie pipe & hopper setup is used to pour the concrete while casting the pile.


At the time of pile concreting, first, we charge the hopper with concrete.  The lock system above the tremie pipe is opened to let the concrete into the pile bore. The concrete is gradually filled in the pile bore, using this concrete batching & charging method.

The bottom end of the tremie pipe is always kept immersed in the poured concrete. In this process, the top part of the concrete gets contaminated with mud splash, bentonite slurry, & other organic impurities.

 When we complete the casting work, the sludge concrete occupies the top part of the pile. This sludge concrete is weak in its compressive strength & they are not capable to carry the designed strength.

So, a cutoff level is calculated for these piles, depending upon their depth, diameter, required design strength, & pile cap level. 

Here, the cutoff level is nothing but the bottom level of the pile cap. By chipping the pile head, we expose the pile reinforcement to have a development length (Ld ) with the pile cap.




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Calculating the concrete volume of hopper for piling?/How to calculate the volume of tremie hopper?

 Tremie hopper is used to pour concrete into the pile foundation. 



Let us now calculate the volume of the tremie hopper for the below-given drawing.



Let us calculate the volume of the tremie in three parts as shown below.



Part-1:

Given data

Diameter = d =1000mm.=1m.

Height = h = 70mm.= 0.07m.

Shape 👉 cylinder.


The volume of part-1 

           = [π ×( d2)/4 × h ]

          = [ 3.142 × (12 ) /4 × 0.07]

          = [3.142 × 0.25 × 0.07]

          =0.055 cum.


Part-2

The volume of the part-2 is calculated by the formula

 = [ (h ÷ 3 ) ×{ A1+A2 + √A1× A2 }]  


Given data:

Height = h = 550mm.=0.55m

Diameter of the top surface d1 = 1000mm.=1m.

Diameter of the bottom surface d2 = 200mm.=0.2m

Shape 👉 frustum of a cone.

First, we will calculate the area A1 & A2

A1 = [( π ×  d12) ÷ 4]

    =  [( 3.142 × 12) ÷ 4]

   =  [3.412 ÷ 4]

  = 0.7855 sqm.


A2=  [( π ×  d22) ÷ 4]

    =  [( 3.142 ×  0.22) ÷ 4]

   =  [0.12568 ÷ 4]

  = 0.03142 sqm.


The volume of part-2

 = [ (h ÷ 3 ) ×{ A1+A2 + √A1× A2 }]  

= [ (0.55 ÷ 3 ) ×{ 0.7855+0.03142 + √0.7855× 0.03142 }]  

= [ (0.1833) ×{ 0.8169 + √0.02468 }]  

= [ (0.1833) ×{ 0.8169 + 0.1571}] 

=[ 0.1833  × 0.974]

=0.178 cu m.

= 6.3 cu ft.


Part-3:

Given data

Diameter = d3 =200mm.=0.2m.

Height = h = 150mm.= 0.15m.

Shape 👉 cylinder.


The volume of part-3 

           = [π ×( d32)/4 × h ]

          = [ 3.142 × (0.22 ) /4 × 0.15]

          = [3.142 × 0.01 × 0.15]

          =0.0047 cum.


Now, the total volume of tremie hopper

= [vol.of part-1 + vol. of part-2 + vol. of part-3]

= [0.055 + 0.178 + 0.0047]

=0.2377 cum.

 To calculate the volume of concrete in a hopper, we only consider the volume of the frustum ( part-2) of the tremie hopper.

So, the concrete volume of the hopper = 0.178 cum.

Note:

1. Part -1 contains a hanging rod for lifting the hopper. So, we won't fill the concrete in part-1.

2. Part-3 is attached with a tremie pipe with a locking system. So, concrete is not filled in part-3.



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How to install marble flooring?/Procedure for laying marble flooring.

 Now, let us go through the step-by-step procedure for laying the marble flooring.

Procedure:

1. Cleaning:

The base of the floor should be cleaned by chiseling the remnants of mortar mix or leftover loose concrete. The pieces of brickbats, aggregate wastes, formwork chips, etc. should be scrapped or removed from the PCC surface.


2. Hacking:


The floor base or PCC surface should be hacked at regular intervals as per the specification. The hacking work can be done by using the cutter tools or by an appropriate chisel. After hacking, the base should be cleaned by removing the chipped materials.

The floor base should be washed with water to remove dirt & other adhered particles. 


3. Cement slurry:

The cement slurry of the lean mix should be evenly spread over the hacked surface. Cement slurry helps to achieve good bonding between the mortar & the existing floor base.


4. Spreading mortar:



Mortar of the required proportion should be prepared & spread over the floor base. Usually, the mortar of 1:6 ratio is used while installing the marble flooring. The mortar should be prepared in batches to cover the smaller area of the floor base. 

We have to keep in mind that the prepared volume of mortar should be consumed within 2 to 3 hours time. Preparing the larger mortar volume to cover the entire floor area of a day's work should be avoided. 


5. Marking level:


The top level of the flooring should be marked or transferred to the 4 corners of the room as shown in the above drawing. Piece of marble, i.e. used in flooring work should be temporarily laid at the room corners as a benchmark for the required slope & level.


6. Leveling mortar:

By holding the lineout string over the benchmark marble piece, the mortar should be leveled uniformly. The top level of the mortar should be floor level minus the marble thickness. A marble piece should be used beneath the string to reassure the mortar top level.

The leveled mortar should be grooved or indented by a trowel & cement slurry should be poured over them. The entire mortar surface should be grooved to its depth & the prepared slurry should enter those grooves for homogeneous bonding.


7. Laying marble:


A marble slab should be laid over the prepared mortar. The laying work should be started from one end of the room. The string is held over the benchmark level & the marble slab is tapped to match the string bottom. 

A wooden log or rubber mallet is used for gently tapping or hammering the floor top to achieve the level.


8. Successive laying:

Before laying the next slab, the edge of the pre-laid marble tile or slab should be cleaned or wiped with clothes. The next slab piece is laid in line & level with the pre-laid tile. They should touch one another without a gap in their junction line. The edges of the two pieces should match accurately without any level difference.

The same procedure is followed for laying all the marble tiles or slabs till the complete floor work is done.


9. Grouting:

The floor joint should be racked & wiped with a clean cloth. White cement or suitable grouting material should be used to fill the joints. The color of the filler material should be selected or prepared to match the marble design.


10. Polishing:

Once the floor is hardened or set, the polishing & waxing of the surface is made to gain the required finish.


 



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Checklist for window & door openings./ Points to check while providing door & window openings.

 While providing the openings for the doors & windows in the building, we have to consider the following 4 points.


1. Level:

The top level of the sill should be fixed for its measurement from the benchmark floor level of the building. As you can observe in the below-given drawing, the height of the sill is shown as 900mm. ( 3 ft.). 



The top level of the sill should be transferred from the benchmark of the floor level using a water level tube. If the floor level is already established below the opening, you can directly fix the sill height from the top of the floor by using a measurement tape.

The bottom height of the lintel level should be fixed at both ends of the window opening. The measurement should be taken from the sill level to fix the lintel height.

You have to check the surface level of the sill by using a spirit level as shown in the drawing.


In a similar manner, the bottom level of the lintel should be adjusted by using the spirit level.


2. Plumb:



The verticality of both the masonry surface of the window should be checked & brought to the required alignment. You can use a plumb bob or spirit level to do this plumbing job as shown in the drawing.
The top & bottom ends of the opening should be checked for fixing the vertical surface.


3. Measurement:


The top & bottom length of the window should be measured as per the given drawing. You have to keep 4 to 5mm. extra for the easy fixture of the window frames.

As you can view in the above drawing, the length of the window is given as 1500mm. (5 ft.). While keeping the size of the opening, you have to measure 1505mm. Here, 5mm. is taken as the extra cushion for easy frame installation in the future.

In a similar way, the height of the window should be measured on both sides, i.e. 1205mm., by keeping 5mm. as an extra length.


4. Diagonal:


The diagonal of the window opening should be checked as shown in the above drawing. The diagonals of the window should be 1928mm. (red dotted line) for the given measurements. The accuracy in the diagonal keeps the opening in a perfectly rectangular shape.

The diagonal of the window can be calculated by using the Pythagoras theorem.

i.e. diagonal length = √ 15052 + 12052

                                = 1928mm.

Note: The same procedure works well while we keep the openings for the doors.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.



 

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