All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

Things to check before buying tiles./ How to buy right type of tiles./Useful tips for buying tiles.

 Following are some of the points to be known before buying tiles.

1. Color:

Hold the tile in the sunlight & watch the total surface colors. The color should be uniform throughout & it should not look dim or faded on any patch of the tile surface.

2. Scratch:

The surface of the tiles should be free from any dents or scratches. If you find any, it indicates that the surface is not hard enough to resist the scratches. Avoid such tiles as they won't last long.

3. Bend:

Keep the tile over a flat floor surface. Or keep a tile over another tile. There should not be any gap between the two. If there is a bend at the edges, you will find them as they create voids by lifting off.

4. Tile lot:

Dealer stores the tiles in lots of particular patterns of a known brand or company.

 When you buy a tile, make sure that all the tile boxes are of the same lot. The tiles of different lots may differ in their shades & there may be slight variations in colors.

5. Grade:

You may find in the market that a tile of a particular size & design differs in price from dealer to dealer. The main reason is its manufactured grade & brand.

Premium quality or A-grade tiles will cost more when compared to B-grade tiles. It is better to go for premium-grade tiles as they have a longer life span.

5. Thickness:

The thickness of the tile should be uniform along the outer edges. Otherwise, they will create uneven floor surfaces when installed.

6. Pattern match:

Tiles contain continual design patterns that will run over 3 to 4 tiles. That means when you install 4 tiles adjacent to one another, a printed design over these 4 tiles gets completed. 

Before buying tiles, don't select a particular tile by looking at one tile piece displayed in the showroom. Ask them to bring all 4 tiles in serial & look for the design it creates after keeping one aside from another.

7. Brand:

Always ask for the tiles of renowned brands. Don't settle down for any locally made tiles to save in your budget. You may find it lucrative at that moment but it will certainly create a headache in the future.

8. Availability:

When you purchase a tile, make sure that the dealer can make you avail the tile of that style in the future. 

While installing, if you need more no. of that type of tile, it should be readily available. 

9. Crack check:

Randomly open the tile boxes & check for any edge breakage or cracks over its surface. Once purchased, the dealer will not agree to replace such faulty tiles. 

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.


Estimating the cost of installing granite top for kitchen platform./Calculating the cost of kitchen platform.

 Let us calculate the installation cost of a granite top for a kitchen platform as shown below.

Material rate: 

Cost of granite slab  👉     INR 180/- to 270/- per sq ft.

For the calculation purpose, let us consider the average rate =   INR 225/- 

Araldite for granite   👉      INR 450/-

Granite adhesive bag   👉    INR 550/-

Steel sink                      👉    INR 1500/- (approx)

Labor rate:

Labor rate for installing granite slab    👉     INR 36/- to 48/- per sq ft.

For the calculation purpose, let us consider the average installation rate =   INR 42/- per sq ft.

Molding rate   👉     INR 150/- to 200/- per r ft.

For the calculation purpose, let us consider the average molding rate =   INR 175/- per r ft.


Area of granite top 

               = [(8 ft. 🇽 2.16 ft.) + (6 ft. 🇽 2.16 ft.) ]

               = [ 17.28 sq ft. + 12.96 sq ft.]

               = 30.24 sq ft.

Total cost of  granite slab

= [ total area 🇽 rate/sq ft.]

= [ 30.24 sq ft. 🇽 225/-]

INR 6804/-

Labor cost:

The cost of installing granite top

 = [ total installation area 🇽 labor rate/sq ft.]

= [ 30.24 sq ft. 🇽 42/-]

INR 1270/-

The total length of molding will be the total exposed front edge of the granite.

= [2.16 ft. + 8 ft. + ( 6 ft. - 2.16 ft.) + 2.16 ft.]

= 16.16 r ft.

Total cost of  molding

= [ total length 🇽 rate/ r ft.]

= [ 16.16 r ft. 🇽 175/-]

INR 2,828/-

Let us calculate the total installation cost in a table format.

Note: To get accurate results, insert your regional market rate of materials & labor, in the above table.

 Installation cost per sq ft. 

                 = [total cost ÷ Granite installation area]

                  = [13,752 ÷ 30.24]

                 = INR 455/- per sq ft.

Thank you for going through these calculation steps. Have a good day 😄.


Things to be known before installing UV PVC marble sheets./What are UV marble sheets?

  Let us go through some of the FAQs that are useful to understand UV PVC marble sheets in a better way.

1. What are UV PVC marble sheets?

UV marble sheets are made of laminated PVC print having a UV film coating over the surface. They look similar to marble finish having a glossy look. 

These sheets are extensively used for wall cladding to provide an ultra-modern look to a room. These panels are also utilized in ceiling works, furniture, LED display units, etc.

2. What are the specifications of UV marble sheets?

UV marble length  👉     8 ft.

                   Width  👉     4 ft.

            Thickness  👉     1mm., 1.2mm., 1.5mm., 2mm., & 3mm.

UV film coating over the marble sheet helps to retain the shine & color of the printed design & enhances the life span of the sheet.

3. Can we use a UV marble sheet directly over the damp wall area?

Yes. For a damp wall surface, you can use a UV marble sheet of 3mm. thickness having a PVC layer at the back end. This installation will be OK if there is no seepage in the wall & the dampness is at a lower degree.


The best method is to install a PVC board of 6mm. thickness as a base layer over the water-prone area. The UV marble sheet should be fixed over the PVC board.

4. What will be the installation cost of UV marble sheets?

The installation cost of UV PVC marble sheet depends upon several factors such as,

1. Brand & quality of the sheet.

2. Thickness of the marble sheet.

3. Coverage area & sheet wastage.

4. Whether the wall is dry or damp.

5. Geographical location.

Go through the article 👇

👀. What will be the installation cost of UV PVC marble sheets?

Considering all these factors, the average market rate for

     Dry wall: INR 130/- to 150/- per sq ft.

 Damp wall: INR 160/- to 180/- per sq ft.

(The extra cost will be due to the PVC board layer) 

5. Is it necessary to use profile Patti for the UV marble sheet installation?

Yes. Profile Patti provides the required strength, stability, & aesthetic appearance to the wall. 

U-profile patti is used at the outer edges or boundary of the sheet. T- profile Patti is used in between the two sheets to hold them together.

6. What are the basic necessary steps to be followed to install UV marble sheets?

Following are some of the steps to be remembered before installing UV marble sheets.

1. Wall finish: 

The wall surface should be plain without any undulations & dents. If ups & downs are present over the wall, it creates voids within the installed UV marble sheets. Over the years, the sheet may come apart due to weak bonding. 

2. Profile Patti: 

In the installation process, it is advisable to use profile Patti at the required positions. They firmly hold the sheets & provide the required stability. 

It is OK to install the sheets for a smaller area of a wall without using profile patti. The glue will do its job of holding the sheet for a smaller dry area.

But for a total area of the wall, & especially for a damp wall, using profile patti is a should & must.

3. Cap screw:

Use a cap screw to firmly anchor the sheets to the wall surface. They not only help to enhance the holding strength but are also aesthetic in appearance.

4. Seepage & dampness :

If there is a seepage in the wall, it is advisable to treat the wall before installing UV marble sheets. For the damp walls, you can fix PVC boards of 6mm. thickness as a base layer. 

Installing the UV marble sheets directly over the damp wall won't last long & the sheet may peel off in the near future.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.


What will be the installation cost of UV PVC marble sheets?/Estimating the cost of UV marble sheets.

 Let us calculate the installation cost of UV PVC marble sheets for a wall of size 10'x 12'


Area of wall = [10'x 12']

                    = 120 sq ft.

Size of one sheet = [4' x 8']

Area of one sheet = 32 sq ft.

No. of sheets required

          = [area of wall ÷ area of sheet]

           =[120 sq ft.  ÷ 32 sq ft.]

           = 3.75 nos.

As we cannot purchase cut pieces, the number of sheets required = 4 nos.

Go through the article 👇

👀.  Things to be known before installing UV PVC marble sheets.

Let us install these sheets as shown in the below drawing.

Total length of profile Patti required

= [4nos. x height of wall + 3nos. x  width of the wall]

 = [ 4nos. x 10 ft. + 3nos. x 12 ft.]

 = 76 ft.

Let us purchase a profile patti of 8 ft. in length.

No. of profile Patti required 

= [total installation length ÷ length of one patti]

 = [76ft. ÷ 8 ft.]

= 9.5 nos.

By rounding off, we need 10 nos. of profile patti.

Material rate:

Cost of UV marble sheet  👉     INR 1800/- to 3000/- per no.

For the calculation purpose, let us consider the average rate =   INR 2400/- 

Cost of profile patti          👉     INR 180/- to 220/- per no.

For the calculation purpose, let us consider the average rate =   INR 200/- 

Screw                               👉     INR 100/- (approx.)

Glue                                 👉     INR 300/-  (approx.)

Labor rate:

Installation cost of labor    👉      INR 18/- to 28/- per sq ft.

Let us consider the average rate = INR 23/- per sq ft.

Total cost of labor 

       = [ wall area in sq ft. x rate/sq ft.]

      = [ 120 sq ft.  x 23/-]

      = INR 2760/-

Transport       👉   INR 350/- (lumpsum.)

Let us calculate the total installation cost in a table format.

Note: To get accurate results, insert your regional market rate of materials & labor, in the above table.

 Installation cost per sq ft. 

                 = [total cost ÷ wall area]

                  = [15,110 ÷ 120]

                 = INR 126/- per sq ft.

👀. If the UV marble installation work is handed over to any contractor, then you have to add 15% extra for his profit.

= [ installation cost/sq ft. + 15% of installation cost/sq ft.]

= [ 126/- + ( 15 ÷ 100) ×  126/-]

= [126 + 18.9]

INR 145/- per sq ft.

Thank you for going through these calculation steps. Have a good day 😄.


Cost & other basic things of aluminum sliding windows.

 When you have decided to install an aluminum sliding window in your home, you may find a market rate varying from INR 210/- per sq ft. to 380/- per sq ft.

You might be thinking, 😎

What makes such a huge difference in costs?  

Which one should I go for?

First, let us understand the reasons behind the rate differences. 

The following 5 factors decide the rate of the aluminum sliding windows.

1. Type of surface finish: 

The surface coating is done in two different methods. They are anodized coating & powder coating.

 The cost of an anodized finish is nearly 1.4X times that of powder-coated material.

2. Material brand :

Top trending brands for their quality are Jindal, Tata Pravesh, Fenesta, Grekon, etc. The branded materials are long-lasting, having superior finish & uniform thickness.

3. Size of window & no. of tracks:

The aluminum windows are available in 2,3, or 4 no. of tracks for sliding purposes. If you select a higher number of tracks for a medium-sized window, it will certainly cost you more.

4. Type & thickness of glass:

Usually, glasses of 5mm. to 8mm. thickness is used while making the aluminum frames. And again, the type of glasses also contributes to the cost of the aluminum window.

5. Quality of accessories: 

Different parts like bearings, rubber packing, locking systems, screws, etc. are needed to make the total window bodies. The accessories made by a branded company will definitely make the window available at a higher range.

So, if you bargain only for the lower rate for the sq ft. of the window, the contractor may agree to your rate. 

But he won't make those windows for you with losses 😂 right!

He will compromise by utilizing the lower quality materials of non-branded local companies.


1. If you are ready to pay 30 % extra, then you can go for anodized windows. If not, powder-coated windows are a good option for what you pay for.

2. Always choose branded materials from renowned companies. 

3. In any case, the thickness of the glass should not be less than 5mm. 

4. For the windows above 4 ft. in width, installing 3-track sliding will be advantageous.

5. To prevent the entry of insects, it is better to install a mosquito net in one frame.

6. Ask for the window bearing & locking system made by branded companies.

Market rate:

The cost of installing an anodized aluminum window       👉  INR 300/- to 380/- per sq ft.

The cost of installing powder-coated aluminum window   👉  INR 210/- to 280/- per sq ft.


1. The above rates are inclusive of material & labor.

2. Rate may vary depending upon geographical locations.


Mostly, the aluminum windows for residential buildings are 4 ft. in height. The width may vary from 3ft. to 5ft. depending upon the room size.

For the calculation purpose, let us consider an aluminum sliding window of size 4ft. x 5ft.

⬥. Area of aluminum sliding window 

                                           =  [4ft. x 5ft.]

                                           = 20 sq ft.

⬥. The cost of an anodized window 

    = [ rate/sq ft.  x window area]

     = [ 340/-  x 20 sq ft. ]

      = INR 6800/-

⬥. The cost of powder-coated window 

    = [ rate/sq ft.  x window area]

     = [245/-  x 20 sq ft. ]

      = INR 4900/-


For the calculation purpose, the average market rate/sq ft. is considered.

Thank you for going through these calculation steps. Have a good day 😄.


How to identify cement bags are genuine or fake?/ Different methods to find out duplicate cement bags.

 Day by day, fake cement manufacturing rackets are increasing & you might have come across such news now & then.

The adultering groups or units follow many different methods to manufacture fake cement. Some of them are,

1. They utilize the emptied cement bags of branded companies to refill them.

2. Manufacturing duplicate cement bags of any branded company.

3. Adding cheap materials like fly ash, marble powder, slag, etc. to the existing cement in bags & restitching them.

So, now the question is, how to identify fake cement bags? 😏

Several different methods can be followed to find out or avoid fake cement bags.

On-the-spot checking:

1. Before purchasing, confirm that the seller is an authorized dealer for that particular brand. The chances are less that the authorized person getting involved in selling any duplicate cement.

2. Randomly check the manufactured date printed over the bag. The company sends the cement bags of a particular date to one dealer & you won't find nonuniformity in them. 

  Before proceeding further,    Go through the article 👇

                            14 things to consider before buying a cement bag.

3. Always go for the recently manufactured bags.  Refilled bags will be of older dates printed over them & the bags won't give a fresh look.

4. The printed matters over the duplicate bags look dim & uneven. They lack quality when compared to the original branded company prints.

5. Take a pinch of cement & gently rub them between your two fingers. Genuine cement gives a fine & smooth feeling. In some cases, the adultered cement gives granular or gritty feelings.

 This happens when a marble powder or slag is used in remixing the cement.

6. Take a handful of cement & observe its color in daylight. They should be greenish-grey in color & they should appear uniform. 

If fly ash is added to cement, they look blackish grey & color spreading lacks uniformity.

7. If possible, randomly check the weight of the cement bags. Restitched bags won't give you the exact weights & may vary from bag to bag.

Field test:

Once the cement is brought to the site, we can perform two different tests to confirm its quality.

1. Float test:

Add some amount of cement to the bucket containing water. The good quality cement floats over water for a few seconds forming pockets before sinking.

If fly ash is added to cement, it won't sink easily, & take a longer time to sink.  

2. Setting test:

A thick cement paste should be prepared & spread uniformly over the glass piece. The allover thickness of the paste should be kept equal. 

After an initial setting time of about 30 minutes, the glass should be submerged in water for about 24 hours.

The next day, the cement layer should be hard in a single piece. 

The poor quality or adultered cement will be soft & form cracks over the spreadings. They may break into several pieces leaving the adhered surface of the glass piece.

Thank you for going through this test procedure. Have a good day 😄.



What will be the installation cost of laminate flooring?/Calculating the cost of laminate flooring for a room.

 Before going through the calculation steps, let us understand the different layers installed one over the other in laminate floorings.

Market rate:

Cost of AC4 8mm. thk. material  👉    INR 80/- to 100/- per sq. ft.

Cost of polythene sheet                👉    INR 3/- to 5/- per sq. ft.

Cost of 3mm. thk. foam               👉    INR 5/- to 7/- per sq. ft.

Labor cost for installation            👉    INR 19/- to 27/- per sq. ft.


 The material rate varies depending on the material brand & geographical location.

Before proceeding further, Go through the article 👇

👀.   FAQs over laminated (engineered ) wooden flooring. 



Let us calculate the installation cost of AC4 grade laminate flooring for a room of size 12' ☓16'.

Area of room 

                = [12' ☓16']

                = 192 sq ft.

For the calculation purpose, let us consider the average market rate of labor & materials.

1. The total cost of a polythene sheet 

                 = [room area ☓ rate/sq ft.]

                 = [192 sq ft. ☓ INR 4/- per sq ft.]  = INR 768/-

2. The total cost of foam

                 = [room area ☓ rate/sq ft.]

                 = [192 sq ft. ☓ INR 6/- per sq ft.]  = INR 1,152/-

3. The total cost of AC4 laminate

                = [room area ☓ rate/sq ft.]

                = [192 sq ft. ☓ INR 90/- per sq ft.]  = INR 17,280/-

4.  The total cost of labor for installation

               = [room area ☓ rate/sq ft.]

               = [192 sq ft. ☓ INR 23/- per sq ft.]  = INR 4,416/-


 The total installation cost of laminate flooring = INR 23, 616/-

Now, let us put the laminate flooring cost in a table format.

Note: 1. To get the accurate cost of laminate flooring, insert the ongoing market rate of labor & material in your country.

 Installation cost per sq ft. 

                 = [total cost ÷ room area]

                  = [23,616 ÷ 192]

                 = INR 123/- per sq ft.

👀. If the laminate flooring work is handed over to any contractor, then you have to add 15% extra for his profit.

= [flooring cost/sq ft. + 15% of flooring cost/sq ft.]

= [ 123/- + ( 15 ÷ 100) ×  123/-]

= [123 + 18.45]

INR 142/- per sq ft.

Thank you for going through these calculation steps. Have a good day 😄.


Different types of roof (rain) gutters for your home./Classification of rain gutters for building.

 Let us go through different types of roof gutters based on their shape & materials used in manufacturing them.

A. Roof gutters based on their shape or style:

1. Half-round gutters:

They are the most common type of gutter used widely all over the world. Due to their curved & smooth interior, they are the most efficient type to clear off drained waters.

Half-cut PVC pipes are the preferred choice due to their cheaper price & availability. They need brackets along the roof edges to secure & hold them in place.

2. Box-style gutters:

These gutters are good to handle large amounts of water. Box-type gutters are best suited for industrial & commercial buildings.

They are available in different sizes starting from 5" and up to 12". 

3. K-type gutters:

The name is given as it looks somewhat like a K shape. These gutters have flat surfaces on one side so that they can be installed in line with the facia board. The front molding provides a decent look to the building.

K-type gutters are available in different colors & sizes.

4. Ogee style gutters:

The curved edge of the gutter provides an architectural & aesthetic look to the building. They hold more water than half-round gutters.
 K -type gutters are also referred to as ogee gutters, but the one that has more of cascading style is simply said an ogee gutter.

5. Fascia gutters:

These gutters are two in one type as they act as fascia boards along with a gutter system. Fascia gutters are necessary type when the home does not have separate fascia boards. 

B. Roof gutters based on materials:

1. GI gutters:

They are heavier & much stronger when compared to aluminum & zinc gutters. They can handle large amounts of water & hence GI material is used in making box-style patterns.

2. Aluminum gutters:

Aluminum gutters are lighter in weight & they have anti-rust properties. These gutters come in plain form or in different color-coated options.

They are easier to install & they impose a lighter load on the building & anchoring materials.


3. PVC gutters:

The plus point of PVC gutters is that they never rust or corrode. They are cheaper & easy to work with.

These gutters need excessive support to stand in line without any twists & bends.

Usually, they are half-round type & are plain white in color.

4. Zinc gutters:

Zinc gutters are long-lasting & durable type when compared to other non-ferrous materials. They are stronger than aluminum but are slightly more expensive.

They need little maintenance & cleaning.

5. Copper gutters:

You can observe such types of gutters in older homes. They provide a rustic & historical look to the building.

 Nowadays, copper gutters are not preferred due to their higher cost & oxidizing nature.

6. FRP gutters:

They have a smooth & glossy finish for the easy drainage of water. 

They are resistant to corrosion and chemicals, & their inert nature makes them suitable for all environmental conditions.

FRP gutters are available in different shapes & sizes.

7. Stainless steel gutters:

These gutters provide a royal look to the building due to its shiny appearance. Stainless steel gutters do not dent or bend in severe weather conditions.

They are expensive & a skilled person is needed to install them.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.



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