All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

How to design a rectangular water tank?/ How to calculate the dimensions of water tank?

  Let us design a rectangular water tank for a family of  5 persons as shown below.



According to BIS standard IS 1172-1993,  the average water consumption per capita (LIG) in India is 135 liters/ day.



 The volume of water required ( in liters ) per day for 5 persons

   = [ per capita consumption /day × no. of persons.]

   = [ 135 liters × 5 nos.]

   = 675 liters.


Now, let us build a water tank having 3ft. depth as shown below.



A. Method - 1:

As you know, 

Volume of water tank

V1 = [ length (L) × breadth (B) × Depth ( D ) ]

   = [ L × B × 3 ft. ]

Here, the volume of the water tank is equal to the vol. of water consumed/day. Let us add 15% extra in the tank volume for the sump & emergency needs.

So, the required volume ( V ) 

 = [water consumption/day + 15% of daily consumption]

 = [ 675 liters + {( 15 ÷ 100) × 675 liters}]

= [ 675 liters. + 101.25 liters ]

= 776.25 liters.


As you know, 

  1 cu ft. = 28.3168 liters

  So, the vol. V of the water tank in cu ft.

   = [ 776. 25 ÷ 28.3168 ] cu ft.

   = 27.41 cu ft.


Now,    

   V =  [( L × B) × 3 ft. ]

 27.41cu ft. = [ (L × B )× 3 ft. ]

By cross multiplication,

(L × B ) = [27.41 cu ft. ÷ 3 ft.]

              = 9.14 sq ft.

You can choose any one of the lengths ( L ) or breadth ( B ), according to the available space for the tank construction.

Suppose if the ideal required length L= 4ft. then,

   (L × B ) = 9.14 sq. ft.

 ( 4ft.× B ) = 9.14 sq. ft.

 B = [9.14 sq. ft. ÷ 4 ft. ]

    = 2.285 ft.


The dimension of the water tank for holding water/ day

= L × B × H 




   = 4ft. × 2.285 ft. × 3ft.

   = 27.42 cu ft.

Note :

If you want to store the water for the 2days requirement, then you have to double any one dimension or recalculate for the 2 days water consumption.

For Eg., Let us take 2 times the breadth to double the vol. of the tank

 = [L × ( 2 × B) × D ]

 = [4ft. × (2 × 2.285 ft.) × 3 ft.]

= [ 4ft. × 4.57 ft. × 3 ft.]

= 54.84 cu ft. ( double the vol. of 27.42 cu ft.)


B. Method-2:

Let us assume the ideal required dimensions of the tank is as shown in the drawing.



Given data:

   Depth = D ft.

   Length L =  2 × depth = 2D

   Breadth B = 1.5 × depth = 1.5D


The required vol. of water tank 

    = 27.41 cu ft. (as calculated above. )

Now,

                 V =  [ L × B × D]

  27.41 cu ft. = [ ( 2D ) × ( 1.5D) × D ]

  27.41 cu ft. = [ 3 × D3  ]

    D3

        = [27.41 cu ft. ÷ 3]
        
        = 9.136 cu ft.

   D = [∛  9.136 cu ft.]

      = 2.09 ft.


Length = 2D = [2 × 2.09 ft.]

                     = 4.18 ft.


Breadth = 1.5D = [ 1.5 × 2.09 ft]

                         = 3.135 ft.


The dimension of the water tank for holding water/ day

  = L × B × H 





    = 4.18 ft. × 3.135 ft. × 2.09 ft.


Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.



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22 differences between acrylic wall putty & cement putty./White cement putty Vs. acrylic wall putty./ Comparing cement putty with acrylic putty.

 Now, let us observe the difference between white cement putty & acrylic putty in a table format.





Sl. no.

              Description

White cement putty

Acrylic putty

1.

Raw material

White cement

+polymers + minerals

Acrylic emulsion + pigments+ additives

+ fillers.

2.

Price

INR X/-

INR 1.5X to 2X/-

3.

Coverage area for 1 kg.

10 to 15 sq ft.( 2 coat)

25 - 33 sq ft.( 2 coat)

4.

Application

Interior, ceiling  &

Exterior of building

Interior, ceiling, &

Wooden surfaces.

5.

Available form

Powder

Paste

6.

Can be applied on damp surface

Yes

No

7.

Setting time.

6 to 8 hours

4 to 6 hours

8.

Preparation

To be prepared by

Adding water

Ready to use

9.

Final finishing

Good

Very good having a

 fine finish.

10.

Flexural & tensile strength

High

Comparatively low

11.

Durability

More

Medium

12.

Binding Strength

High  strength.

Comparatively low strength.

13.

Appearance

Medium

Luxury look.

14.

Recommended for luxury paints

No

Yes

15.

Resistance to water seepage

Yes

No

16.

Need curing.

No

No

17.

Finishing type

Smooth & matt

Smooth & glossy

18.

VOC content

No

Yes. Theoretical 25gm/lit

19.

Shelf life

6 months

1 year

20.

Application thickness

1.5 mm - 2 mm.

Up to 1.5 mm.

21.

Is primer coat required?

No

Yes.

22.

Is punning required?

Optional

Yes.

 

For you 👇

❤. What is wall putty in construction?- Advantages , disadvantages & different types.

❤. What is the difference between gypsum & POP?.- Their manufacturing process &  different uses.


Thank you for going through this table. Have a good day 😄.

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What are PVC wall panels? - Their pros & cons./ PVC wall panel FAQs.

 Let us go through some of the FAQs related to PVC wall panels.

1. What are PVC wall panels?




  PVC stands for PolyVinylChloride. It is a widely used plastic material & most of the plumbing & irrigational pipes are made of this material. 

PVC wall panels are hollow-core items used for the interior wall claddings & ceilings. Due to their hollow part, they are lighter in weight. They have tongue & groove-type joints for faster & easy installments. PVC wall panels are used as a decorative material for the home interior similar to wallpapers.




  

2. What are the advantages & disadvantages of PVC wall panels?

Advantages:

1. Lighter in weight & user-friendly.

2. Easy to install in very little time.

3. They can be cut to the required size as per the wall area.

4. If there is a dampness in the wall you cannot use wallpapers or paints unless you treat them. In such areas, PVC wall panels are the best available alternatives. 

5. PVC wall panels don't burn easily. The ignition temp. of PVC is around 435°C. 

6. Easy to transport & budget-friendly.

7. The PVC wall panels are available with a lifetime warranty of around 20 years.

8. Nominal installation wastage as they are available in different dimensions.

9. PVC wall panels are easy to clean as they have a smooth surface.

10. PVC panels have good sound insulation properties.

11. They are 100% recyclable plastic products.

12. Removing & reinstalling is easy as they have tongue & groove type joints.

13. PVC panels are available in a huge variety & designs to choose from.


Disadvantages:

1. PVC panels may get scratches or dents if any sharp object hits them accidentally.

2. If you want to hang over any photo frames or objects, screwing or nailing these panels is a tedious job.

3. Once you punch a hole in them, you cannot fill them to bring them back to their original form.


3. Is PVC wall panel harmful to health?




No. The PVC wall panel does not release any toxic gas or chemicals in the natural environmental condition. But, if you burn PVC materials, they release harmful fumes containing dioxins, chlorine, carbon monoxide, etc. 

PVC wall panels do not release any chemicals when they are washed or cleaned with water.




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28 differences between cement plaster & gypsum plaster./ Comparing gypsum plaster with cement plaster./ Cement plaster Vs. gypsum plaster.

 Now, let us observe the difference between cement plaster & gypsum plaster in a table format.




Sl. No.

            Description

Cement plaster

Gypsum plaster

1.

Raw material

Cement, sand, &  water

Gypsum & water

2.

Application

Interior & exterior

Interior wall & ceiling

3.

Thickness of wall coat

12mm. - 15mm.

8mm. - 12mm.

4.

Wastage

High

Low

5.

Water resistance

Yes

No

6.

Can be applied on moist surface

Yes

No

7.

Setting time.

More

Less

8.

Usage in wet areas

Yes

No. you cannot use

Them in bathroom,

Toilet, balcony, etc.

9.

Can be applied on smooth surface?

No. To apply, you have to make the surface rough.

Yes. Can be applied

on smooth & rough surface.

10.

Flexural strength

Comparatively less

Comparatively more

11.

Resistance to shrinkage

Average

Good.

12.

Final finishing

Slightly rough.

Smooth.

13.

Surface level

Medium

Good

14.

Durability

More

Comparatively Less.

15.

Bonding strength

Good on rough surface

Average.

16.

Preparation

Sand, cement, & water

should be prepared

in different ratios.

Comes in pre-mixed

bag. You have to only

add water.

17.

Mixing time.

More.

Less

18.

Fire resistance property

May develop cracks

due to brittle nature

Withholds by acting

as a barrier.

19.

Density

More

Comparatively less.

20.

Cost

More

Less

21.

Colour

Dark grey.

White.

22.

Load on structure

Due to high density,

load will be more.

Comparatively less

load on structure.

23.

Appearance

Dull

Attractive.

24.

Resistance to water seepage

Yes

No

25.

Completion time

More

Comparatively less

26.

Need curing.

Yes

No

27.

For painting

May need punning

Punning not required

28.

Anti-fungal property

No.

Yes.

 

For you 👇

❤. What is wall putty in construction?- Advantages , disadvantages & different types.

❤. What is the difference between gypsum & POP?.- Their manufacturing process &  different uses.


Thank you for going through this table. Have a good day 😄.

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Why bentonite powder is used in pile foundation work?/ What is bentonite powder?

 💁. What is bentonite powder?




Bentonite is a type of clay material, formed due to the weathering of volcanic ash. They are mined from the quarry & crushed into fine powder.

The different types of bentonite are 

1. Sodium bentonite.

2. Calcium bentonite.

3. Potassium bentonite.

In the construction industry, sodium bentonite is used in pile foundation works.


💁. Why bentonite powder is used in pile foundation work?

The bentonite has high water-absorbent properties. It swells considerably, nearly 8 times its volume after absorbing water. 

Sodium bentonite is thixotropic in nature, which makes them suitable for soil stabilization work.

The bentonite slurry contains cations( Na+) which bring stability to the boring soil surface due to electrically charged ions.

So, bentonite slurry is used to prevent the collapse of the soil in the pile bore to a larger extent.


💁. What are the advantages of using bentonite slurry in pile foundation?

Advantages:

1. Bentonite prevents the collapse of the soil by forming a layer over the exposed pile foundation surface.

2. Reduces the volume of extra concrete, needed to fill the unnecessary cavities formed due to the fall of soil.



3. Bentonite helps to maintain the quality of concrete in the pile foundation. If bentonite is not used, the soil particles may get mixed with the poured concrete, resulting in a lower grade of concrete.

4. Bentonite acts as a lubricant material for the pile driving equipment & hammers reducing the boring friction.

5. By forming a barrier coat over the soil, bentonite reduces the volume of extra collapsed soil. This helps to complete the work at a faster rate.





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How to calculate the installation cost of PVC wall panels?/ What will be the installation cost of PVC wall panels?

 Let us now calculate the installation cost of a PVC wall panel for one wall of a room.




Let us consider the wall of dimension 15ft. × 10ft. for the calculation purpose. 




Given data:

Length of the wall = 15 ft.= 180 inches

Height of the wall = 10 ft.


Area of the wall 

= [length × height ]

= [15 ft. × 10 ft.]

= 150 sq ft.


The standard size of one PVC panel = 10" × 10 ft.



Now, the no. of panels required

= [length of the wall ÷ width of the panel]

= [ 180 inches ÷ 10 inches]

= 18 nos.


We need PVC corner beading Patti on all four corners of the wall.



The standard length of one PVC corner Patti = 10 ft.


So, the no. of corner beading Patti required

= [ {perimeter of the wall} ÷ length of the PVC corner Patti]

= [{ 2nos × 15ft. + 2nos. × 10ft.} ÷ 10ft.]

= [ 50 ft.÷ 10 ft.]

= 5 nos.


Cost calculation:

👀Material rate:

The cost of one PVC wall panel ( regular type ) ranges from INR 300/- to 500/- per piece.

Let us purchase a PVC panel of INR 400/- per piece.


The cost of  PVC corner beading line Patti ranges from INR 100/- to 140/- per piece.

Let us take an average rate of INR 120/- per piece.


👀Labor rate:

The labor rate for installing  PVC wall panels varies from INR 120/- to 160/- per piece.

Let us take the ideal labor rate as 140/- per piece.


The total cost of labor

= [ no. of PVC wall panels × labor rate/panel]

= [ 18 nos. × 140/ no.]

= INR 2,520/-


Now, let us calculate the PVC wall panel installation cost in a table format.

Sl. no.

Item.

Qty.

Rate.

in INR.

Unit.

Cost

in INR.

1.

PVC wall panel

  18

      400/-

No.

   7,200.00

2.

PVC corner Patti

    5

      120/-

No.

      600.00

3.

PVC adhesive

    1

       70/-

No.

        70.00

4.

Transport

             Lump-sum

      350.00

5.

                      The  material cost =

   8,220.00

6.

                               Add 5% extra =

      411.00

7.

             The total material cost =

    8631.00

8.

                         Total Labor cost =

   2,520.00

11.

  The total cost of PVC panel installation =

  11,151.00

 

Note: 1. To get the accurate cost of the panel installation, insert the ongoing market rate of labor & material in your country.


👀. The cost of PVC wall paneling /sq ft.

= [total panel installation cost ÷ total wall area]

= [  11,151/- ÷ 150 ]

= INR 74.34/- per sq ft.


👀. If the PVC panel work is handed over to any contractor, then you have to add 10% extra for his profit.

= [PVC paneling cost/sq ft. + 10% of PVC paneling cost/sq ft.]

= [ 74.34/- + ( 10 ÷ 100) ×  74.34/-]

= [74.34 + 7.43]

INR 81.77/- per sq ft.


Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.










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