All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

What is the difference between PVC pipes & CPVC pipes?/PVC pipes Vs. CPVC pipes./Comparing PVC pipes with CPVC pipes.

 Let us observe the differences between  PVC pipes & CPVC pipes in a table format.




Sl. no.

              Description

PVC pipes.

CPVC pipes.

1.

Full form.

Polyvinyl chloride pipes.

Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride pipes.

2.

Chlorine content.

Contains 57% chlorine in composition.

Contains 74% chlorine in composition.

3.

Withstanding temperature.

Can be used for a temp. up to 60° C. (140° F)

Can be used for a temp. up to 93° C. (200° F)

4.

Price.

Comparatively cheap.

Comparatively expensive.

5.

IS code for the material.

As per IS-15778

As per IS-4985(2000)

6.

Resistance to chlorine presence.

Reacts with chlorine.

 

No reaction with chlorine.

7.

Application.

For cold water plumbing, irrigation works, drainage, vents, sprinkler system.

For hot & cold water plumbing, to handle corrosive water, industrial pipe lines.

8.

Prevention for the growth of bacteria.

Comparatively more.

Comparatively less.

9.

Specification for the solvents used in joining the pipes.

According to standard specification of

 ASTM D2564.

According to the specification of

 ASTM  F493.

10.

 Flexibility.

Comparatively less flexible.

Comparatively more flexible.

11.

Available length of pipes.

Available in 3m. & 6m. length.

Available in 3m. & 5m. length.

12.

Available colours.

White →  schedule-40

Grey    → schedule-80

Off white.

Cream      →schedule-40

Light grey→schedule-80

13.

Ductility.

Comparatively less ductile.

Comparatively more ductile.

14.

Pipe diameter.

NPS → Nominal pipe size.

NPS → Nominal pipe size.

CTS → Copper tube size.

15.

UV stability.

Comparatively less.

Comparatively more.

16.

Degradation for temp. & pressure.

Degrades fast for rise in temp & pressure.

Limited degradation for rise in temp & pressure.

17.

Types.

SWR pipes, ring fit pipe, soil pipe, agriculture pipe .

SDR 9 pipe, SDR 11 pipe, SDR 13.5 pipe.

 

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Points to be known to construct a mini pump house for building./ Creating a pump house in a right way.

 In the residential buildings, we install a water pump to supply water from the UG water tank or from the open well into the overhead tank.

But, the pump needs protection from the external environments to be fit & last long.. Right!

I have seen the building owners who think of it in the later stage & install the pumps in an improper manner as shown below.




As you can observe in the above image, the pump is unnecessarily occupying the room space.

The best option is to construct a mini pump house nearer to the suction tank or adjoining the building wall.


Given below are some of the points or ideas to construct the mini pump house in a better way.


1. Dimension:




You have to provide an offset of at least 150mm. (6") on all the sides of the pump. At the suction side of the pump, the gap between the wall & pump should be 200mm. (8") & above. At the time of repair & maintenance, you need extra space to turn the pipe wrench for disassembling. 

The pump house should be built after the purchase of the water pump. This is because all types of pumps vary in their dimensions. 


2. Floor level:




The floor level of the pump house should be at least 150mm. (6") above the ground level. Make a concrete bed with a neatly finished top surface. Use granite, Kota, or any stone slabs of 1" to 1.5" thickness as the water pump base.

All these provisions save the pump from dampness & keep the floor in a fully dry condition.

3. Waterproofing:

 The interior & exterior wall surface of the pump house should be plastered to block the entry of moisture. If possible use a waterproofing compound while plastering.


4. Top slab:

The top slab should be overhung from the wall surface on all four sides. The minimum overhung measurement should be 150mm. (6"). The slab should have an adequate slope to drain the rainwater.

Use an RCC slab or impermeable stone slab to cover the top of the pump house. These slabs should be kept without any joints so that we can lift them when necessary. The slabs act as an opening to access the pump.




Don't use corrugated sheets to cover the top of the pump house. The undulated sheet openings give a passage for the entry of insects.


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How to protect exposed reinforcement bars from rusting?/ Different ways to protect exposed rebar's from corrosion in construction.

 After the construction of residential buildings, the column bars above the roof slab are extended for providing lap length for future construction.

Usually, the parapet wall is built & an RCC column is constructed to cover the exposed bars. It is OK if you are not going to raise the building in the future.

But, if you have the plan to build the 1st floor in the near future, the following are some of the ways to protect the exposed rebars.


1. Anti-corrosive treatment: 




A wide range of anti-corrosive inhibitors is available in the market to protect the rebars from rusting. The treated rebars are protected for a period of 1 to 2 years from rusting. If you are planning to extend the building within 2 years of time, anti-corrosive treatment is the best solution.

If you are living in a coastal area, go for polymer-based coatings to get rid of the corrosion from atmospheric salts. 


2. Pipe protection:




Use a PVC pipe of the required size to slide over the exposed rebars. You have to seal the top & bottom end of the pipe with insulation or packaging tapes. PVC end cap at the top will also do the trick to protect the rebar.

You can choose any type of plastic pipes like PVC, UPVC, HDPE, or electrical pipes to do the protection job. 

 Those pipes can be reused for future plumbing or electrical works in the constructed building.


3. Lean concrete:




Construct the column by using lean concrete of M7.5 (1:4:8) or M10 (1:3:6) grade. At the time of construction, you can break those columns effortlessly to expose the reinforcements.

The advantage of using lean concrete is,

1. You will save in your budget, as you utilize less volume of cement.

2. You can dismantle those columns by chiseling or by concrete breakers in a lesser time. This saves labor & machine cost.

3. Protect the slab surface from damage & cracking, as we use less force to break the column concrete.

4. The broken concrete material can be recycled in the filling, plinth protection, or any such low-profile works.


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What is the difference between flush door & paneled door? / Flush door Vs. paneled door.

 Let us observe the differences between a wooden flush door & a wooden paneled door in a table format.



Sl. no.

              Description

Flush door.

Paneled door.

1.

Surface look.

It has flat & smooth surface on both sides.

It has panels having different patterns & designs.

2.

Price.

Average INR X/-

Average INR 1.2X to 2X/-

3.

Installation.

They weigh less than panelled doors. Installation is easy in comparison.

Comparatively, the installation takes more time & they need skilled workers.

4.

Application.

Used as interior as well as exterior doors.

Mostly used as exterior doors.

5.

Appearance.

Less attractive.

Comparatively attractive.

6.

Different types.

Solid core flush door,

Hollow core flush door,

Cellular flush door.

 

No such types.

7.

Fixtures & accessories.

Can hold less fixtures & need simple accessories.

Holding strength is more, so we can provide heavier accessories.

8.

Manufacturing process.

Plywood or veneer is placed as a top layer & inner body contains solid core of wooden strips. Usually, hard wood is used for outer frames.

Panels are placed in the wooden frames made of vertical stiles & horizontal rails.

9.

Production time.

Made in less time.

Needs more time due to cumbersome work.

10.

Strength.

Comparatively low

Good in strength.

11.

Manufacturing

Manufactured in factories.

Can be made in factories as well as on working sites.

12.

Moisture resistance.

Low moisture resistance properties.

Comparatively high moisture resistant.

13.

Termite resistance

Good resistance in comparison.

Low, as they are made of natural wood.

14.

Cost.

Less expensive.

More expensive in comparison.

15.

Cleaning.

Easy to clean as they have plain surfaces.

Not easy as they have grooves & panels.

16.

Life span.

Comparatively less durable.

More durable if maintained correctly.

17.

Sound insulation

Comparatively good insulator of sound.

Not a good sound insulator.

18.

Fire resistance

Medium

Low.

19.

Polishing & painting

Not required for laminated doors, but veneer finished doors may need periodic coatings.

Needs successive painting & polishing.

 

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How to calculate the water holding capacity of capsule tank?/ Calculating the volume of capsule tank.

Let us consider a hemispherical capsule tank as shown below.



Another name for such shapes is the spherocylindrical water tank.

The formula for the volume calculation 

  V = [πr2 L + (4π r3 ÷3)]

      =  [π r2  × {L + (4 r ÷3)}]


Let us redraw the capsule tank with dimensions for the calculation purpose.



Given data:

Length = L = 2.5m.

Diameter = d = 1m.


Volume calculation:

Radius r = [ d ÷ 2]

              = [ 1m. ÷ 2]

             r = 0.5m.


The volume of the capsule tank

V =  [π r2  × { L + (4 r ÷3)}]

     = [3.142 × 0.52  × { 2.5m + (4× 0.5m.  ÷3)}]

     = [0.7855 × { 2.5m. + 0.667m}]

     = [0.7855 × 3.167m]

     = 2.487 cum.


As you know, 1 cum = 1000 liter 

So, the capacity of the capsule water tank in liters

= [2.487 cum × 1000]

2487 liters.


The capacity of the capsule water tank in US gallons

  = [2487 liters ÷ 3.785 ]

   ( As 1US gallon = 3.785 liters )

  = 657.07 gallons.


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What is the difference between mild steel & stainless steel?/ Mild steel Vs. stainless steel.

 Let us observe the differences between mild steel & stainless steel in a table format.




Sl. no.

              Description

Mild steel

Stainless steel

1.

Main factor that differentiates them.

Carbon as main alloying element.

Chromium as main alloying element.

2.

Fabrication.

Easy to cut, bend, & fabricate.

Comparatively not easy to cut, bend, & fabricate.

3.

Corrosion resistance.

No.

Yes.

4.

Rusting prevention.

Iron present in the steel reacts with oxygen forming iron oxide i.e. rust.

Chromium present in the steel reacts with oxygen forming chromium oxide which forms a layer to prevent rusting of iron.

5.

Appearance.

Not attractive.

Attractive & aesthetic in appearance.

6.

Cost.

Comparatively cheaper.

Comparatively

 Expensive.

7.

Surface look.

Dull.

Shiny.

8.

Welding work.

Easy to weld.

Comparatively not easy to weld.

9.

Hardness.

Comparatively less hard

Comparatively more hard.

10.

Toughness.

Less tough.

More tough.

11.

Ductility.

More ductile.

Less ductile.

12.

Application.

 Reinforcement bars, sheets, angels, bolts, beam sections, channels, etc.

Utensils, surgical equipments, railing pipes, bathroom fixtures, etc.

13.

Working & finishing cost.

Less expensive.

Comparatively more expensive.

14.

Malleability.

Comparatively more malleable.

Less malleable.

15.

Brittleness.

Less brittle.

Comparatively more brittle.

16.

Lifespan.

 Comparatively less due to corrosion.

 More lifespan due to corrosion resistance.

17.

Maintenance.

More maintenance cost in preventing the material from rusting.

Less maintenance cost.

18.

Magnetic.

Yes.

Ferritic  stainless steels are generally magnetic but austenitic steels are not.

 


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