All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

Points to check before purchasing granites./How to buy best quality granites?/Tips for buying granites.

First, you have to visit several granite dealers nearby you & collect the granite samples from every one of them.

●. After collecting samples:

After collecting sample pieces from the dealer, look for whether the pattern matches with your home interior. Always go for the shades that are vibrant & enhance the beauty of your home.

After selecting the particular granite sample out of many, you have to carry out the following tests to check its quality. 

◆. Acid test:

Superior granite is inert to different types of acids. In the kitchen, often we use tamarind & lemon for cooking. They are acidic in nature & the kitchen countertop should have the ability to resist any reaction with them.

To check the quality, put a few drops of lemon juice over the granite sample piece. After keeping them overnight, wipe them with a clean towel. There should not be any dullness or change in colors. If you find patches of reaction, then such granite samples should be discarded.

◆. Scratch test:

Granite is one of the hardest natural stones available on Earth. The hardness rating of granite on the Mohs scale is 6-7. The hardness of metal steel is between 4 to 4.5 on the same scale. 

Scratch the surface of the granite slab with a coin or any vehicle key. The best quality granite is scratch-resistant & you won't find any markings over its surface. 

If there are any markings, it suggests that granite stone is not dense & contains a higher percentage of other materials in its composition.

Granite samples that have scratch-proof qualities should be selected.

◆. Porosity test:

Put a few drops of water over the granite pieces & clean the water with a paper towel after about half an hour. If you find dampness or traces behind, it indicates that the granite is porous & lacks quality.

●. After selecting samples:

Once the granite sample passes all the above-given quality tests the next thing you have to do is to visit the particular dealer who has provided you the best granite piece.

Now, the following are the different points to be checked over the granite slab before purchasing.

◆. Thickness:

Mostly, the thickness of the granite slab is 3/4th inch. (20 mm.). In any case, the thickness of the countertop granite slab should not be less than 17mm.

You may choose a thin slab as the price is lucrative. However, they are not good enough to sustain impact loads & may break or develop cracks in the future.

◆. Natural finish:

To attract customers, the granite slab is made more smooth & shiny by color-coating the surface. Initially, these types of slabs look superior, but gradually they lose their glitter & become dull.

Now, how to identify such types of granites?

Pour a bucket of water over the back surface of the slab. The design pattern should look similar to the front polished face. If you find variations in color patterns that means the surface is sprayed with coatings.

If you cannot distinguish by this method, you can find them by alternate procedure as mentioned below.

Take a dry clean cloth piece & soak it with kerosene or paint thinner. Rub the small portion of the granite slab for several seconds. The color will come off & you will find them over the cloth piece.

◆. Surface finish: 

The Granite slab should not contain any spots or dents on its surface. Gently hover your palm over the polished surface. It should be smooth without any undulations & grainy touch. 

◆. Cracks:

Granite may contain hairline cracks over its body. You have to take a close-up view of the surface of the granite slab in the daylight. If you find any cracks or dents in granite fissures, you have to avoid such slabs.

◆. Pattern: 

Nowadays, granite slabs are available in various types of design patterns having different colored textures. Whatever the pattern may be, you have to closely look for the uniformity of the textures. It should not be dense at particular parts of the granite surface & light in some surface areas.

It indicates that the mined granite stone is not a well-formed igneous rock & its hardness may vary. 

◆. Color:

The color should be uniform all over the surface of the granite slab. If you find them dark in some areas & faint with a dull finish at other slab parts you should avoid such granites.

◆. Watermarking & lining:

Granite should be free of any water flow like marking having different shades. If you find any strip of lines having a narrow width or water markings, don't buy such granites.

●. Some other points:

◆. Patience:

The seller may put you in urgency to make hasty decisions to buy an improper granite piece. Please don't fall for their words. 

Once you install granite for countertops or flooring, it is very difficult to replace them in the future. So, be cool & do all the needed checking.

◆. Origin:

Granite is a natural stone mined from different geographical locations. Stones coming from certain regions may be well known for their superiority & quality.

Before purchasing, try to know the granite's origin & if possible search for the granite slab coming from the renowned mining area. 

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.


Standard height of switch boards for different rooms of residential buildings./Standard height & location of electric switch boards.

 Let us discuss the location & height of the switchboards for different rooms of residential buildings.

Note: All the mentioned heights are the measurements up to the center of the switchboard.

1. Doorbell:

The preferred location of the doorbell is on the right-hand side of the main door. This will be a convenient option as the majority of people are right-handed.

The bell should be very close to the door openings.

The height of the doorbell should be 4 ft. (1.20m.) from the floor level. 

The height of the video door phone 👉  53" to 64" ( 135 to 160 cm.)

The height of the doorbell speaker  👉  7' (2.1m.)

2. Hall:

When we enter our home at night time, the first thing we grope for is a switchboard. Once we open our door, the switchboard should be within our arm's reach to light the room. 

The height of the lighting switchboard should be 4' 3" or say 51" (1.30m.) from the floor level.

TV switchboard:

The height of the board should be between 2.5' to 3.5' or say 30'' to 42" (75cm. to 105cm.) from the floor level.

Height of the socket board 👉  18" (45cm.)

Space between two switch boxes 👉  2" (5cm.)

3. Bedroom:

The correct way of installing the switchboard is that it should not come behind or covered by the door. This creates inconvenience, as we have to close the door to switch on. 

The board should be next to the wall adjacent to the door knob.

The height of the board should be 4' 3"( 1.30m.) from the floor level.

Board near the bed:

This board is used to connect mobile, laptops, bed lamps, etc. 

The height of the board should be between 2.5' to 3' or say 30'' to 36" (75cm. to 90 cm.) from the floor finishings.

Dressing table switch point 👉  6' (1.80m.)

AC point   👉   6.5 ft. (2m.)

The bottom level of the ceiling fan 👉  8' 8" ( 2.65 m.) from the floor top.

4. Kitchen:

We use numerous types of appliances in the kitchens & each one of them has its own comfort level of electric switch operation.

For refrigerator:

The height should be 4' ( 1.20m.) from the floor level.

For grinding mixer:

The height should be 9" to 12" ( 23cm. to 30cm.) from the kitchen platform level.

For water filter:

 The height varies according to the installation location of the RO. 

The board height    👉  3' to 6' ( 0.9m. to1.80m.) from the floor level.

5. Bathroom:

For washing machine:

The height should be between 3' to 4' ( 0.90 m. to 1.20m.) from the floor level.

For geyser:

This point should be away from the shower. In any case, it should not be in front of the shower.

 The height should be 6' to 7' ( 1.80m. to 2.1m.) from the floor level.

6. Distribution board :

The height of the main power board/distribution board 👉 6' to 7' (1.8m. to 2.1m.) from the floor top.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.


Plinth beam or DPC, which one is necessary for building?/Plinth beam Vs. DPC in construction./When do we need DPC in construction?

 Before answering the question, provided as an article heading, let us understand the functions of the plinth beam & DPC.

●. Plinth beam:

1. The plinth beam is an essential structural member to take the dead load of the walls & to distribute them uniformly.

2. They help to tie up all the foundation columns & provide rigidity to the structural base.

3. It helps in preventing the settlement of buildings.

From the above 3 points, you might have understood that we cannot skip plinth beams in framed structures.

●. DPC:

The full form of DPC is damp proof course. As the name suggests, DPC is needed to prevent the upward movement of dampness in the wall of the building.

The water has the ability to rise within the brick walls due to capillary actions. The brick wall absorbs water from the surrounding ground-level fillings & the dampness starts to slowly rise upwards.

DPC acts as a barrier & cuts the further water rise within the wall.

Now, let us come to the real issue.

Is DPC necessary for the plinth of the building?

The answer is yes & no. 😃

  Let us go through the following 3 conditions, when & where the DPC is required or not.

1. When the plinth beam is provided at the top level of the plinth 👉   DPC is not required. 

Here, the plinth beam plays a double role & acts as a DPC for the plinth.

2. When a plinth beam is provided at the base level of the plinth 👉    DPC is required. 

To raise the plinth to the specified level, we should construct the wall masonry over the beam. The wall constructed above absorbs water from the outer fillings & DPC is necessary at the top end of the plinth wall.

3. When a plinth beam is provided above the ground level 👉    DPC may or may not required.

 If there is a chance of moorum filling in the outer periphery of the building in the near future 👉   DPC is required. 

If there is no chance of filling & plinth beam is already at a comfortable height from the ground level  👉  DPC is not required.


This content is for regular residential buildings where a ground beam or tie beam is not provided in the construction. 

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.


All about tile adhesives./FAQs related to tile adhesives.

 Let us go through some of the FAQs related to tile adhesives in construction.

1. What are tile adhesives?

Tile adhesives are ready-to-use glue materials for installing various types of tiles. They can be used to install tiles on floors, walls, cladding, & exterior flooring works.

They are manufactured by blending various types of raw materials such as polymers, super fine sand, additives, specified cement, etc. 

Depending upon the surface applications, tile adhesives are formulated in different types to provide the best results to the users.

2.  Tile adhesive Vs cement, which is better?

Tile adhesives & cement have their own pros & cons. Let us compare them to find out which one is better for tile installation.

Tile adhesives:


 1. Has good bonding strength.

2. Are a versatile product. They can be used on a variety of substrates.

3. A thin layer is sufficient to provide the required bonding. This saves in cost & reduces dead load over the building.

4. Minimal shrinkage. 

5. Ready-to-use product, & that helps to maintain quality in the work.


1. Expensive when compared to cement.

Cement :


1. Cheaper when compared to the adhesives.

2.  Readily available in all parts of the world.


1. The cement mixture shrinks after drying & may create voids below the tile area.

2. Ceramic tiles need to be soaked before laying.

3. Cannot use them on all types of substrates.

4. Average bonding strength when compared with adhesives.

5. Cement mixture should be prepared on-site & improper proportion may result in poor construction quality.

By comparing the above-given factors, we can say that tile adhesives are a better choice than cement.

 Although tile adhesives are expensive, the benefits that they provide make them worth the price.


3. Why we should use tile adhesives?

Following are the different reasons that make tile adhesives a must-buy product.

1. They have a superior bonding property.

2. They are pre-blended ready-to-use material, that makes us maintain uniform working quality. 

3. Tile adhesives are formulated having desired properties that are specific to the different surface applications.

 This makes us select the proper type of adhesive depending on the type of substrate & working location.

4. They are engineered to control shrinkage & tile breakage.

5. Tile adhesives can be used in installing a wide range of tiles & stones on different types of substrates.

6. A thin layer of tile adhesives is sufficient to lay the tiles which saves in cost. 

4. What is the cost of tile adhesive?

The cost of tile adhesive depends upon

1. The type of tile adhesive.

2. Manufactured company, brand, & its quality.

3. The package weight & purchase volume.

4. Geographic location & its availability.

Considering all these factors, the average cost of tile adhesive comes to around INR 350/- for 20 kg. bag.

When compared with cement, they cost around 2 to 2.5 times the average cement price.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.


Useful tips for buying & installation of tiles.

Let us go through some of the points that should be known before buying & installing the tiles.

 ◆. Tile selection:

When you enter the tile showroom, you will find that the rate of an individual tile is mentioned as per sq ft. of that design.

Suppose, let us say the rate of a particular tile is 75/- per sq ft.

However once chosen, the dealer may make a bill according to the rate printed over the box of the tile.

 Many times if you are unaware, the printed rate may cost above the sq ft. rate & it may come to around 85/- to 90/- per sq ft.

The best method is to check the total area of tiles present in every box & multiply them by the rate per sq ft.

Eg. :


 The size of a tile              👉  1'х 3' 

Number of tiles in a box   👉   4 nos.

Rate printed over the box 👉  1050/-

Rate of tile in sq ft.            👉    75/-


The total area of tile in a box 

= [(size of one tile) х no. of tiles.]

= [ (1'х 3' ) х 4 nos.]

= 12 sq ft.

The cost of tile 

= [ total area х rate per sq ft.]

= [ 12 sq ft. х 75/-]

= 900/-

But, the rate printed over the box = 1050/-

The cost per sq ft. as per printed rate

= [ Printed rate ÷ total tile area]

= [1050 ÷ 12]

= 87.50/-

The rate difference 

 = [87.50 - 75]

= 12.50/- per sq ft.

This is how you have to check the rates to save in your budget.

◆. Tile size:

Tiles are available in sizes from 1' х 1'  (1 sq ft.) to 4'  х 4'  (16 sq ft.) having varying thicknesses.

You have to select the tile sizes according to the room area where you need to install them. 

Now, let us understand the reasons behind these criteria.

1. If you select a bigger-sized tile for a smaller room area, the wastage will be much higher. It is advisable to select a 2' х 2' tile or of lesser size for a room of up to 100 sq ft area.

2. Every tile lot carries a continual design pattern over them. When you install them adjacent to one another, they complete a particular type of design. 

An incomplete design will look odd & this happens when bigger-sized tiles cover tiny-sized rooms.

3. For a bigger floor area like in commercial & public buildings, the larger version of tiles is most suited.

◆. Type of tile:

The main two types of manufactured tiles that we use in building construction are vitrified tiles & ceramic tiles.

 Vitrified tiles are impervious, strong, & absorb less water when compared to ceramic tiles. So, it is better to go for vitrified tiles rather than ceramic type.

Ceramic is not suitable in water-prone areas & vitrified is the right choice in the kitchen, bathroom, & toilet, etc.

◆. Bonding material:

In the earlier days, ceramic tiles were popular& the size of these tiles was limited up to 2 sq ft. Mostly, cement mortar is used as a bed material to install these tiles. Ceramic material absorbs more water, and cement mortar is OK for these tiles to provide the required bonding.

Nowadays, vitrified tiles are trending in the market due to their added advantages. They are impervious, strong, & absorb less water. They are available in different sizes & the area of one tile can be up to 16 sq ft.

The size & properties of vitrified tile needed stronger bonding material than cement mortar for their installation. So, different types of tile adhesives came into the picture to suit these types of tiles.

Once you select a tile, your work will not end there. If you have chosen a tile of the best brand, & neglected the bonding material, it won't help you to maintain the required quality.

Therefore, select the specified type of tile adhesives for the installation of tiles according to their given characteristics.

◆. Tile spacing:

When you install big-sized tiles, it is a must to use tile spacers. They come in different thicknesses & you should select the right type of tile spacers according to the tile type, tile size & coverage area.

The tile spacers have their own added advantages, & to know them in a better way,

Go through the article 👇

👀. What are tile spacers? - Uses of tile spacers.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.



Calculating the cost & volume of tile adhesive required for a wall.

 In the market, you will get different brands of tile adhesives having their own specified coverage area. 

As tile adhesives are a ready-made product, the cost & volume of tile adhesive will vary according to the type & brand you have chosen.

Let us understand this with an example.

For calculation purposes, I have taken the data given by the Roff brand as shown below.

Given data by company:

Weight of one bag = 20 kg.

Adhesive laying thickness = 3mm.

Coverage area = 5 to 6 m²/bag.

The cost of Roff  TO2 type tile adhesive 👉  approx. INR 390/- per 20kg bag.


Let us consider a wall of size 6 ft. х 18 ft. to be installed with tile.

Let us provide an adhesive layer of 3mm. thickness as the wall has a uniform surface.

Area of wall

 = [ 6 ft. х 18 ft.]

= 108 sq ft.

Area in m²

= [108 ➗ 10.764]

= 10.03 m²

The number of adhesive bags required for the wall

= [wall area ÷ coverage area/bag]

= [  10.03÷ 5 m² / bag ]

= 2 bags.

The total cost of tile adhesive 

= [rate/bag х no. of bags]

=[ 390/- х 2]

= INR 780/-

👀. The cost of tile adhesive/ m²

= [total adhesive cost ÷ total covered area]

= [  780 ÷ 10.03]

= INR 77.77/- per  m² .

= INR 7.22/- per sq ft.

Thank you for going through these calculation steps. Have a good day 😄.


Things to check before buying tiles./ How to buy right type of tiles./Useful tips for buying tiles.

 Following are some of the points to be known before buying tiles.

1. Color:

Hold the tile in the sunlight & watch the total surface colors. The color should be uniform throughout & it should not look dim or faded on any patch of the tile surface.

2. Scratch:

The surface of the tiles should be free from any dents or scratches. If you find any, it indicates that the surface is not hard enough to resist the scratches. Avoid such tiles as they won't last long.

3. Bend:

Keep the tile over a flat floor surface. Or keep a tile over another tile. There should not be any gap between the two. If there is a bend at the edges, you will find them as they create voids by lifting off.

4. Tile lot:

Dealer stores the tiles in lots of particular patterns of a known brand or company.

 When you buy a tile, make sure that all the tile boxes are of the same lot. The tiles of different lots may differ in their shades & there may be slight variations in colors.

5. Grade:

You may find in the market that a tile of a particular size & design differs in price from dealer to dealer. The main reason is its manufactured grade & brand.

Premium quality or A-grade tiles will cost more when compared to B-grade tiles. It is better to go for premium-grade tiles as they have a longer life span.

6. Thickness:

The thickness of the tile should be uniform along the outer edges. Otherwise, they will create uneven floor surfaces when installed.

7. Pattern match:

Tiles contain continual design patterns that will run over 3 to 4 tiles. That means when you install 4 tiles adjacent to one another, a printed design over these 4 tiles gets completed. 

Before buying tiles, don't select a particular tile by looking at one tile piece displayed in the showroom. Ask them to bring all 4 tiles in serial & look for the design it creates after keeping one aside from another.

8. Brand:

Always ask for the tiles of renowned brands. Don't settle down for any locally made tiles to save in your budget. You may find it lucrative at that moment but it will certainly create a headache in the future.

9. Availability:

When you purchase a tile, make sure that the dealer can make you avail the tile of that style in the future. 

While installing, if you need more no. of that type of tile, it should be readily available. 

10. Crack check:

Randomly open the tile boxes & check for any edge breakage or cracks over its surface. Once purchased, the dealer will not agree to replace such faulty tiles. 

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.


Estimating the cost of installing granite top for kitchen platform./Calculating the cost of kitchen platform.

 Let us calculate the installation cost of a granite top for a kitchen platform as shown below.

Material rate: 

Cost of granite slab  👉     INR 180/- to 270/- per sq ft.

For the calculation purpose, let us consider the average rate =   INR 225/- 

Araldite for granite   👉      INR 450/-

Granite adhesive bag   👉    INR 550/-

Steel sink                      👉    INR 1500/- (approx)

Labor rate:

Labor rate for installing granite slab    👉     INR 36/- to 48/- per sq ft.

For the calculation purpose, let us consider the average installation rate =   INR 42/- per sq ft.

Molding rate   👉     INR 150/- to 200/- per r ft.

For the calculation purpose, let us consider the average molding rate =   INR 175/- per r ft.


Area of granite top 

               = [(8 ft. 🇽 2.16 ft.) + (6 ft. 🇽 2.16 ft.) ]

               = [ 17.28 sq ft. + 12.96 sq ft.]

               = 30.24 sq ft.

Total cost of  granite slab

= [ total area 🇽 rate/sq ft.]

= [ 30.24 sq ft. 🇽 225/-]

INR 6804/-

Labor cost:

The cost of installing granite top

 = [ total installation area 🇽 labor rate/sq ft.]

= [ 30.24 sq ft. 🇽 42/-]

INR 1270/-

The total length of molding will be the total exposed front edge of the granite.

= [2.16 ft. + 8 ft. + ( 6 ft. - 2.16 ft.) + 2.16 ft.]

= 16.16 r ft.

Total cost of  molding

= [ total length 🇽 rate/ r ft.]

= [ 16.16 r ft. 🇽 175/-]

INR 2,828/-

Let us calculate the total installation cost in a table format.

Note: To get accurate results, insert your regional market rate of materials & labor, in the above table.

 Installation cost per sq ft. 

                 = [total cost ÷ Granite installation area]

                  = [13,752 ÷ 30.24]

                 = INR 455/- per sq ft.

Thank you for going through these calculation steps. Have a good day 😄.



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