All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

What are interlocking paver blocks? - their advantages & disadvantages.

 1. What are interlocking paver blocks?



Interlocking paver blocks are the manufactured building materials made of concrete, clay, or recycled plastics. They are laid over the ground surface level & interlocked with one another, without mortar or adhesives at the joints.

Interlocking paver blocks find their usage in the pathways, gardens, footpaths, garage, parking areas, building basements, etc.


2. What are the advantages & disadvantages of paver blocks?

Advantages:

1. Appearance:

When compared to the exterior concrete or stone works, the paver blocks provide an architectural & royal look to the structures. 

2. Drainage:

The paver blocks won't allow the water to clog over them in the rainy season. The periphery of these individual blocks allows water to drain out as no mortar is used to bond in the joints.

3. Wide selection:

Interlocking paver blocks are available in a wide variety of colors, patterns, models, etc. You can choose the one that suits your need.

4. Safety:

The surface of these paver blocks is layered to carry anti-skid & anti-slip properties. So, they are safe to move over in all types of weather conditions.

5. Low maintenance:

You can wash them at regular intervals just by spraying or pouring water over them. The top surface is made of higher-grade materials, it does not wear & tear easily.

6. Breakage:

If by accident, any single paver block breaks in between, you can remove & replace them. 

7. Removable:

  The installed paver blocks can be removed & shifted, without damaging them. Replacing the existing blockwork is easy, as no mortar is used in the joints.

8. Quick installation:

The installation work gets completed very quickly, thus saving the labor cost.

9. Environment-friendly:

It allows the rainwater to percolate in the ground, through their permeable joints. This indirectly helps in rain harvesting, up to a certain level.


Disadvantages:

1. Settlement:



If the installed paver blocks are not compacted properly, there is a chance of settlement of individual pieces. If more blocks get settled, they create an uneven surface.

2. Fading color:

Various types of metal oxides are used in the pavers, to provide the colored top surface. If the oxides are of substandard quality, the color may fade away in the near future. 

3. Weed growth:



The ground surface should be neatly dressed & cleaned before installing the paver blocks. Lower workmanship may result in weed or fungal growth at the paver joints.

4. Uneven edge:

If the base layer of the paver blocks is not prepared as per the specification, you may feel bumps or ups & downs over the paver surface.

 Note: 

As such, the above said disadvantages are created by the poor workmanship & quality of procured blocks. You can avoid them by following the proper installation procedure & maintaining the paver quality.

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How to calculate the cost of rubble (boulder) soling?/ Estimation & rate analysis of rubble soling work

 Let us now calculate the cost of rubble soling as shown in the below drawing.


Given data:

Length of the rubble soling = 15 ft.

Width of the rubble soling = 8 ft.

The thickness of the rubble soling = 0.75 ft.


The total volume of the rubble soling

= [length × width × thickness]

= [15 ft. × 8 ft. × 0.75 ft.]

90 cu ft.

Before proceeding further, go through the article ðŸ‘‡

👀  What is rubble (boulder) soling? - their purpose & thumb rules in soling calculations.

So that you will understand the calculation concept clearly, without any questions.


A. Material calculation:

1.  Volume of  rubble stone:

The required vol. of stone 

= [1.25 × the vol. of  rubble soling]

= [1.25 × 90 cu ft.]

112.50 cu ft.


2. Volume of moorum:

The required vol. of moorum

= 15% of the vol. of rubble stone.

= [15 × 112.5 cu ft. ÷ 100]

16.875 cu ft.

B.  Labor calculation:

The labor rate per cu ft. of the rubble soling work ranges from INR 9/- to 15/- depending upon the region.

Let us consider an average rate of INR 12/- per cu ft.

The total cost of labor for rubble soling

   = total vol. of rubble soling in cu ft.  × labor rate/ cu ft.

   = 90 cu ft. × 12/-

   = INR 1,080/-

Note: Labor rate inclusive of moorum spreading, compaction, & water flooding.


Now, let us calculate the total cost of rubble soling in table format.

Sl. no.

Item.

Qty.

Rate.

in INR.

Unit.

Cost

in INR.

1.

Rubble stone

 112.50

        33/-

Cu ft.

   3,712.50

2.

Moorum

     16.88

      12/-

Cu ft.

       202.56

3.

Rent of compactor

  Lump-sum

       200.00

4.

Water for flooding

Lump-sum

       100.00

5.

Miscellaneous

Lump-sum

       100.00

6.

                                                      The material cost =

   4,315.06

7.

                                                       Add 5% wastage =

       215.75

8.

                                                   Total material cost =

   4,530.81

9.

                                                                Labour cost =

   1,080.00

10.

       The total cost of rubble soling work =

   5610.81

 

Note: To get accurate results, insert your regional market rate of materials & labor, in the above table.


a. The cost of rubble soling /cu ft.

= [total rubble soling cost ÷ total soling vol. in cu ft.]

= [5,610.81 ÷ 90]

= INR 62.34 /cu ft.


b. The cost of rubble soling /cum.

   = [62.34 × 35.3147]

  = INR 2,201.60 / cum.

( As 1cum = 35.3147 cu ft.)


Note:

 If the work is handed over to any contractor, you have to add 10% extra for his profit.


Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day😄.

If you have any quarries, you can ask me in the comment box👇.




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What is rubble (boulder) soling? - their purpose & thumb rules in soling calculations.

 1. What is rubble soling?



Rubble soling is the procedure of laying hard stones of required specifications adjacent to one another, with minimal voids in between them. The gaps are filled with stone chips or moorum to firmly pack the soling as required.

Before proceeding further, go through the article ðŸ‘‡

👀  Rubble (boulder) soling procedure for the foundation and footing.

to understand the soling concept clearly.


2. Why do we provide rubble soling in the construction works?

We provide rubble soling for the following 3 main purposes.

a. To provide a hard & firm base or sub-base for the upper structural layers.

b. To increase the bearing capacity of the soil or strata.

c. To provide a leveled base above the undulated strata for PCC or any such works.


3. What are the thumb rules used in the rate analysis of rubble soling works?

In the rubble soling work, we use stones that are irregular & unequal in their sizes. So, we cannot do an accurate estimate of the materials required in doing rubble soling work. 

As mentioned below, certain thumb rules are followed in the estimation & rate analysis of rubble soling works.

1. The loose stone required for the rubble soling is 1.25 times the total volume of the work.

Suppose, if the volume of the rubble soling  = 10 cu ft. 

The volume of the rubble or stone procured for the soling work = 1.25 × 10 cu ft. = 12.5 cu ft.


2. The volume of the moorum required for the soling work will be 15% of the total volume of the rubble stone.

Suppose, if the volume of the rubble = 10 cu ft. 

The required vol. of the moorum = [15 × 10 cu ft.÷ 100] = 1.5 cu ft.


4. What are the factors that affect the required volume of the materials in a rubble soling work?

Various factors that affect the stone & moorum vol. in the soling work are,

1.  The depth or thickness of soling.

2. Shape & size of the rubble stone.

3.  Degree of soling compaction & type of compactor used.

4. Volume of stone chips used.

5. Degree of neatness in hammering & packing the stone.

6. Surface finish, texture & type of stone used.

7. Wastage of materials.

Depending upon the above factors, the required loose volume of the rubble stone varies from 15% to 30% of the total vol. of the soling work. 

Similarly, the required volume of moorum ranges from 10% to 20% of the total rubble stone volume.

We consider the average of the consumed material to bring the estimation or rate analysis, nearer to accuracy.

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Calculating the cost of stone (random rubble) masonry work./Rate analysis of RR (stone )masonry work.

 Let us consider RR ( stone ) masonry wall for the calculation purpose as shown in the below drawing.

Given data:

Length of the stone masonry wall = 15 ft.

Height of the stone masonry wall = 7 ft.

The thickness of the RR masonry wall = 1.5 ft.


The total volume of the RR masonry wall

= [length × height × thickness]

= [15 ft. × 7 ft. × 1.5 ft.]

= 157.5 cu ft.


Before proceeding further, go through the article 👇

👀 . What is random rubble masonry? - Thumb rules in RR masonry calculations. 

to understand the calculation procedure without any questions.


A. Material calculation:

1.  Volume of  rubble stone:

The required vol. of stone 

= [1.25 × the vol. of RR masonry wall]

= [1.25 × 157.5 cu ft.]

= 196.875 cu ft.


2. Cement mortar:

The required dry vol. of cement mortar

= 40% of the vol. of RR masonry.

= [40 × 157.5 cu ft. ÷ 100]

= 63 cu ft.


Let us build this wall in the cement mortar of 1:6 ratio 

 a.  The volume of the sand

         = [{its ratio  ÷ ( total ratio)} × dry mortar vol.]

          = [{6  ÷ ( 6 + 1)} × 63]

           = [0.8571 × 63]

           = 54 cu ft.   or 

         = 1.53 cum.


b. Volume of the cement 

   = [total dry mortar vol. - volume of sand]

    = [63 cu ft. - 54 cu ft.]

    = 9 cu ft.

As you know, one bag of cement = 1.226 cu ft.

  Number of cement bags 

    = [9 cu ft. ÷ 1.226 cu ft.]

    =   7.34 bags.


B.  Labor calculation:

The labor rate per cu ft. of the RR masonry work ranges from INR 10/- to 16/- depending upon the region.

Let us consider an average rate of INR 13/- per cu ft.

The total cost of labor for RR masonry

   = total vol. of RR masonry in cu ft.  × labor rate/ cu ft.

   = 157.5 cu ft. × 13/-

   = INR 2,047.5/-


Now, let us calculate the total cost of RR masonry in table format.

Sl. no.

Item.

Qty.

Rate.

in INR.

Unit.

Cost

in INR.

1.

Rubble stone

 196.88

        35/-

Cu ft.

   6,890.80

2.

Cement

     7.34

   380/-

bag

   2,789.20

3.

Sand

   54.00

   60/-

Cu ft.

    3,240.00

4.

Curing

Lump-sum

        200.00

5.

Miscellaneous

Lump-sum

        275.00

6.

                                                      The material cost =

  13,395.00

7.

                                                       Add 5% wastage =

        669.75

8.

                                                   Total material cost =

  14,064.75

9.

                                                                Labour cost =

      2047.50

10.

    The total cost of RR masonry wall =

   16,112.25

 

Note: To get accurate results, insert your regional market rate of materials & labor, in the above table.


a. The cost of random rubble masonry/cu ft.

= [total RR masonry cost ÷ total masonry vol. in cu ft.]

= [16,112.25 ÷ 157.5]

= INR 102.30 /cu ft.


b. The cost of random rubble masonry/cum.

   = [102.3 × 35.3147]

  = INR 3,612.70 / cum.

( As 1cum = 35.3147 cu ft.)


Note:

 If the work is handed over to any contractor, you have to add 10% extra for his profit.


Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day😄.

If you have any quarries, you can ask me in the comment box👇.



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What is random rubble masonry? - Thumb rules in RR masonry calculations.

 ðŸ‘€.  What is random rubble masonry?



In random rubble masonry, the specified stones of rough & irregular size are used to build the structures.

The RR masonry is further categorized into




a. Un-coursed RR masonry:

The stones are arranged by roughly dressing or chiseling them without any layers in the construction works.

b. RR masonry built to course:

The stones are laid in courses of somewhat equal height by neatly dressing & hammering them. The stones of equal size are selected to build the outer face of the wall & to maintain the layers.


👀.. What are the thumb rules used in the rate analysis of RR masonry works?

In the RR masonry work, we use stones that are irregular & unequal in their sizes. So, we cannot do an accurate estimate of the materials required in doing RR masonry. 

As mentioned below, certain thumb rules are followed in the estimation & rate analysis of RR masonry works.

1. The stone required for the RR masonry is 1.25 times the total volume of the work.

Suppose, if the volume of the RR masonry wall = 10 cu ft. 

The volume of the stone procured to build the wall = 1.25 × 10 cu ft. = 12.5 cu ft.


2. The dry volume of the mortar required for the RR masonry work will be 40% of the total volume of the RR masonry.

Suppose, if the volume of the RR masonry wall = 10 cu ft. 

The required dry vol. of the mortar = [40 × 10 cu ft.÷ 100] = 4 cu ft.


👀.. What are the factors that affect the required volume of the materials in RR masonry works?

Various factors that affect the stone & mortar vol. in the RR masonry are,

1.  The structural dimension.

2. Shape & size of the stone.

3.  Type of RR masonry work.

4. Volume of stone chips used.

5. Thickness of the joints.

6. Height of the individual course or layers.

7. Degree of neatness in chiseling & dressing the stone.

8. Surface finish, texture & type of stone used.

9. Wastage of materials.

Depending upon the above factors, the required dry vol. of the mortar varies from 35% to 45% of the total vol. of the masonry. 

Similarly, the required volume of stones ranges from 1.2 to 1.3 times the total masonry volume.

We consider the average of the consumed material to bring the estimation or rate analysis, nearer to accuracy.


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How to calculate the cost of filling a plot with construction soil (moorum)?

Let us consider a plot or site as shown in the below drawing for the calculation purpose.


Given data:

Length of the plot = 80 ft.

The breadth of the plot = 50 ft.

Depth of the plot to be filled at front end = 2 ft.

Depth of the plot to be filled at back end = 3.5 ft.


The volume of the plot to be filled with construction soil

= [length × breadth × (average depth of the plot to be filled)]

= [ 80 ft. × 50 ft. × {( 2ft. + 3.5 ft.) ÷ 2}]

=  [ 80 ft. × 50 ft. × 2.75 ft.]

= 11,000 cu ft.


When we fill the plot with the loose soil, we need an extra volume of soil for settlement & compaction.

As you know,

Loose soil = 1.25 × compacted soil.

So, the volume of soil required to fill the plot

= 1.25 × 11,000 cu ft.

= 13, 750 cu ft.

= 389.36 cum.

( As 1 cum. = 35.3147 cu ft.)


The cost of filling:

The cost of construction soil falls in a range of INR 300/- to 500/- per cum.

Let us consider an average of INR 400/- for the calculation purpose.

The cost of filling the plot with soil

= [vol. of soil required in cum. × cost / cum.]

= [ 389.36 cum. × 400/- per cum.]

= INR 1,55,744/-


The soil required in no. of trucks:

The vol. of a truck container = 500 cu ft.

The no. of truck required 

= [ the vol. of soil required in cu ft. ÷ the vol. of a truck]

= [ 13,750 cu ft. ÷ 500 cu ft.]

= 27.5 nos.


The soil required in no. of tractor-trolley:




The vol. of a trolley = 70 cu ft.

The no. of trolley required 

= [ the vol. of soil required in cu ft. ÷ the vol. of a trolley]

= [ 13,750 cu ft. ÷ 70 cu ft.]

= 196.43 nos. say 197 nos.

Note: 

1. The cost of construction soil varies according to the regional market rate. Replace the soil cost to get the correct results.

2. Here, the compaction factor of 1.25 is taken, by considering the natural compaction by rainwater & vehicle movements. If the roller or mechanical compactor is used, the multiplication factor will be 1.35.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day😄.

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What are polycarbonate roofing sheets? - Their advantage, disadvantages, dimensions, & price.

 1. What are polycarbonate roofing sheets?



Polycarbonates are thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their chemical structures. The sheets made of polycarbonate are strong & durable having impact resistance properties.

The transparent sheets made of polycarbonates have better light transmission capabilities as equivalent to glass.


2. What are the advantages & disadvantages of polycarbonate roofing sheets?

Advantages:

1. Polycarbonate sheets have higher impact resistance properties.

2. Strong & durable compared to PVC or UPVC sheets.

3. High light transmission capabilities as similar to glass.

Transparent polycarbonate sheets.


4.  Lighter in weight. when compared to glass.

5. Polycarbonate sheets are easier to handle & install.

6. The multiwall sheets are good in blocking sound & act as sound-proof.

7. They let the sunlight in but blocks the ultraviolet radiations from entering.

8. They are flexible & can be easily designed for domes or curved structures.

Sheet design in the curved structure.


  9.  Polycarbonate sheets have good weather resistance properties.

10. Polycarbonate sheets have aesthetic look & they enhance the architectural look of the structures.


Disadvantages:

1. They are not scratch proof & hence they are surface-coated.

2. They are slightly costlier than other similar types of roofing sheets.


3.  What is the price of polycarbonate roofing sheets?

The price of the polycarbonate sheets depends upon the thickness, type, opacity, brand, color, etc. The price of the sheet starts at INR 35/- per sqft. & goes up to 400/- sq ft.

The general purpose sheets used for roofing sheds, canopy, housetop, etc. comes in an ideal range of INR 45/- sq ft. to 150/- sq ft.


4. What are the available dimensions of polycarbonate roofing sheets?

The generally available size of the polycarbonate sheets is,

    Width 👉 1220mm. to 2100mm.

    Thickness 👉 1mm. to 35mm.

    Length 👉 1220 mm to 12200mm. & above.

The twin-wall or multiwall polycarbonate sheets fall in a higher dimensional range.

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How to calculate the length of the roof rafters?

 Let us calculate the length of the roof rafter as shown in the below drawing.


Before proceeding further, go through the article 👇,

👀  What are the different terms used in roof slope calculations?

So that you will understand the calculation steps clearly.

The length of the roof rafters is calculated in three different methods based on the available data. Let us go through, all of them as explained below.


1. Roof rafter with pitch:

Given data:

Span = 20 ft.

Pitch = 7 /12

As you know, 

Run = [span ÷ 2]

      = [ 20 ft. ÷ 2] 

      = 10 ft. 

Here,

Pitch = [rise / run.]

i.e.   ( 7 / 12 ) = [ rise / 10 ft.]

By cross multiplication,

Rise = [ (7/12 ) × 10 ft.]

       = 5.833 ft.


By Pythagoras theorem,

AB2= AC2 + BC2

 i.e. rafter2= rise2 + run2

    Rafter = √ rise2 + run2

Rafter = √ (5.833)2 + (10)2  

          = √ 34.027 + 100

= √ 134.027

= 11.577 ft.

Length of the roof rafter = 11.577 ft.


2. Roof rafter with an angle & span:


Given data :

Span = 20 ft.

Angle Î¸ = 25°

As you know, 

Run = [span ÷ 2]

      = [ 20 ft. ÷ 2] 

      = 10 ft.


By trigonometry,

sinθ = opposite / hypotenuse

In the above triangle,

Side AB = rafter = hypotenuse

Side BC = run = opposite.

So, 

Sin25° = [ 10 ft. ÷ hypotenuse]

0.4226 = [ 10 ft. ÷ hypotenuse]

By cross multiplying,

Hypotenuse = [10 ft. ÷ 0.4226 ]

                   = 23.663 ft.

The length of the roof rafter = 23.663 ft.


3. Roof rafter with an angle & rise:

Given data :

Rise = 8 ft.

Angle Î¸ = 25°


By trigonometry,

cosθ = adjacent / hypotenuse

In the above triangle,

Side AB = rafter = hypotenuse

Side AC = rise = adjacent.

So, 

Cos25° = [ 8 ft. ÷ hypotenuse]

0.906 = [ 8 ft. ÷ hypotenuse]

By cross multiplying,

Hypotenuse = [8 ft. ÷ 0.906 ]

                   = 8.83 ft.

The length of the roof rafter = 8.83 ft.


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What are the different terms used in roof slope calculations?

 Let us understand the terms used in roofing slope calculations with the below-given drawing.


1. Rafter:

 The distance between the ridge of the roof to the external edge of the wall surface.


2. Span: 

The horizontal distance between the roof supports up to the bottom end of the roof rafter.


3. Rise: 

The vertical distance between the top end of the wall or roof supports & the ridge of the roof.


4. Run: 

The horizontal distance between the ridge of the roof & the external edge of the top plate of the wall or roof supports.

In other words, the run is half of the total span.

Run = span /2.


5. Pitch

The vertical rise over the horizontal run is said as a pitch of the roof. the pitch of the roof is calculated in the number of units it rises vertically for every 12 units of horizontal extension.

For eg., a roof that rises 4 units for every 12 units of a horizontal run has a pitch of 4 / 12.


6. Overhang: 

The extra length of the roof rafter extending beyond the external edge of the wall or roof support.



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What will be the cost of modular brick wall masonry?/ Rate analysis of modular brickwork.

 Let us consider modular brick wall masonry as shown in the drawing for calculation purposes.



Given data:

Length of the brick wall = 4m.

Height of the brick wall = 3m.

The thickness of the brick wall = 200mm. = 0.20m.


The total volume of the brick wall masonry

= length × height × thickness

= 4m. × 3m. × 0.20m..

= 2.40 cum.


The total area of brick wall

= length × height 

=4m. × 3m. 

12 sqm.


A.  Material calculation:

Read the article " Brick, cement, & sand calculations for modular brick masonry." before proceeding further.

       No. of bricks required/ cum. of wall = 500 nos.

      No. of Cement bags required/ cum. of wall = 1.261 bags

      The volume of sand required/ cum. of wall = 0.2628 cum.

Note :

 The requirement of bricks, cement & sand per cum. is taken from the above-mentioned article.

1. No. of  bricks required 

      = [vol. of brick wall × bricks/ cum.]

      =  [2.4 cum. × 500 nos.]

     = 1200 nos.


2. No. of  cement bags required 

        = [vol. of brick wall × cement / cum.]

      =  [2.4 cum. × 1.261bags]

     = 3.0264 bags


3. The volume of sand required 

  = [vol. of brick wall × sand/ cum.]

      =  [2.4 cum. × 0.2628 cum.]

     = 0.6307 cum.


B.  Labor calculation:

The labor rate per cum. of the modular brick masonry ranges from INR 130/- to 210/- depending upon the region.

Let us consider an average rate of INR 170/- per sqm.


The total cost of labor for modular brick masonry

   = total area of brick masonry in sqm.  × labor rate/ sqm.

   = 12 sqm. × 170/-

   = INR 2,040/-

Now, let us calculate the total cost of modular brick masonry in table format.

Sl. no.

Item.

Qty.

Rate.

in INR.

Unit.

Cost

in INR.

1.

Modular  brick

  1200

        7/-

Nos.

   8,400.00

2.

Cement

 3.0264

   380/-

bag

   1,150.03

3.

Sand

 0.6307

2100/-

Cum.

    1,324.47

4.

Curing

Lump-sum

        200.00

5.

Miscellaneous

Lump-sum

        175.00

6.

                                                      The material cost =

  11,249.50

7.

                                                       Add 5% wastage =

        562.48

8.

                                                   Total material cost =

  11,811.98

9.

                                                                Labour cost =

      2040.00

10.

    The total cost of modular brick masonry =

   13,851.98

 

Note: To get accurate results, insert your regional market rate of materials & labor, in the above table.

a. The cost of modular brick wall masonry/sqm.

= [total brick masonry cost ÷ total brick wall area]

= 13,851.98 ÷ 12

= INR 1154.33 /sqm.


b. The cost of modular brick wall masonry/cum.

= [total brick masonry cost ÷ total vol. of the brick wall]

= 13,851.98 ÷ 2.4

= INR 5771.66 /cum.


c. The cost of modular brick wall masonry/sq ft.

= [1154.33 ÷ 10.764]

= INR 107.24 / sq ft.


d. The cost of modular brick wall masonry/cu ft.

= [5771.66 ÷ 35.3147]

= INR 163.44 / cu ft.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day😄.

If you have any quarries, you can ask me in the comment box👇.


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