All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

What are the different types of window glass films?

  The window glass films are broadly divided into 3 categories based upon,

A. Their function or purpose.

B. Type of raw material or components. 

C. Area or location of use.

A. Function or purpose:

1. Sunlight control glass film:

They block the infrared rays of the sun from entering the room. Sun control films make the interior cool by reducing the incoming heat. They are available in different shades & colors. 

2. Designer or decorative glass film:

These types of films beautify the room by providing a royal look to the window glasses.

They are used in residential buildings, partitions, office cabins, etc.

3. Translucent glass film:

The translucent film helps to partly transfer the sunlight & blur the vision of the interior. 

4. One-way vision film:

We can view the outside of the window by applying these glass films. But, they act as a mirror when you observe from the outside of the building. 
So, one-way films are also said to be mirror glass films.

5. Frosted glass film: 

These glasses have acid-itched or sand-blasted surface texture. They provide an architectural look along with the required privacy for the interior. These films prevent vision from both sides of the windows.

6. Office interior film:

Office partition films have banded or strip-like designs. These films provide partial translucency at the required levels. 

7. Safety or security glass film:

These films protect the glass from breaking into pieces. It provides security from burglars & vandalism. The film has thicker adhesive coatings, that help to hold the window glass together. 

They also reduce the risk of injury due to the flying of glass pieces in the event of an explosion.


8. Privacy glass film:

The main object of these films is to provide total privacy to the building. Design & aesthetic look becomes secondary factor when applying such type of glass films. 

9. UV protection film:

As the name suggests, they block the entry of UV rays & provide thermal insulation to the building interior. 

10. Anti-graffiti film:

Anti-graffiti film is a clear distortion-free coating to protect against vandalism. These films create an invisible barrier between the glass & offender's graffiti or markings.

B. Types of raw materials & components:

1. Colored or dyed films:

Required colors or dye are used while melting & stretching the films. They are good at absorbing the sun's heat instead of reflecting or repelling it.

2. Metalized films:

Certain types of metal particles such as nickel, aluminum, copper, etc. are used while manufacturing the films. The protective layer of these materials helps to deflect the sun rays & reduce the interior temperature.

3. Hybrid films:

As the name suggests, it adopts the best features of dyed & metalized films. These films induce reflective & absorptive properties in the films to work well in all types of climatic conditions.

C. Area or location of use:

1. Architectural or building glass films:

All types of glass films used in building construction come under this category. They are utilized to reduce interior heat, safeguard privacy, & in enhancing the building's appearance.

2. Automotive glass films:

They reduce the visible light transmission through the vehicle windows. The darkness of the tinting should be at the required level as per the regional jurisdictions.

3. Marine glass films:

The tinted glass films are used in marine windows for heat rejection & UV protection. Usually, ceramic coatings of nanotechnology are used while manufacturing these films.

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What is isolated footing?/ Different types of isolated footings.

 1. What is isolated footing?

The isolated footings are the structural members, provided beneath the individual columns to distribute the loads to the earth. 

The isolated footings transmit & spread the loads uniformly to the soil over which they rest. They come under the category of shallow-type foundations. 

2. What are the different types of isolated footings?

Isolated footings are classified under 3 types. They are,

1. Pad footing.

2. Step footing.

3. Sloped footing.

1. Pad footing:

The thickness of this footing is consistent & uniform. Pad footings are made to sustain concentrated loads from the single columns. 

These footings are also called by the names simple spread footing or flat footings.

2. Step footing:

In the earlier days, step footing was popular in the foundation of residential buildings. But nowadays, the usage of step footing has declined. Usually, two to three steps were made over one another as shown in the drawing.
This type of footing was used to control the punching shear & to distribute the loads to the soil strata.

3. Sloped footing:

The slopes were maintained at 45° on all 4 sides from the top surface of the footing. Providing a slope helps to reduce the volume of concrete utilized in the footing. 

 These types of footings are also known as trapezoidal footings.

3. What are the different shapes of isolated footings?

The shape of the footing is decided based upon the designed loads, SBC of soil, & sectional dimension of the supported column.

All types of isolated footings were usually built in 3 different shapes. They are,

1. Circular footing:

The section of the column may be circular or square in dimension. The circular-shaped footings may be either step footing or pad type of isolated footing.

2. Rectangular footing:

The section of the footing is rectangular in shape as shown above. When the columns are rectangular in dimension, the footings were built-in the rectangular section to uniformly accommodate column loads. 

3. Square footing:

This is the most common type of footing, usually selected for columns having square sections. Here, the length & breadth of the footing is equal.

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Weight calculator for MS square & rectangular bars./MS square & rectangular section weight calculator.

 To know the calculation procedure,  Go through the article 👇

👀. Calculating the weight of the MS square bar.


This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

For more such calculators, click 👇

Instant calculators.

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What are Vibro stone columns?/ All about Vibro stone columns.

Let us go through the FAQs related to Vibro stone columns as follows.

1. What are Vibro stone columns?

Vibro stone columns are a process to improve the bearing capacity of weak soils by the installation of stone columns up to the required depth. 

The Vibro columns are made of crushed stones, gravel, or similar type of coarse aggregate materials. These materials are densely compacted with vibrating tools to form a column-like structure below the proposed soil. 

2. What are the different ways to install Vibro stone columns?

There are two methods to form the Vibro stone columns.

Top feed method:

The vibrator probe is penetrated into the ground up to the required depth. The tip of the vibrator tool is fitted with a water jet nozzle to pump the pressurized water. The crushed materials are added around the drilled hole at the top soil surface. The vibration makes these materials fall into the space created by the water jet & vibrator. 

The vibrator is lifted to several feet so that the aggregates occupy the empty space beneath the vibrator tool. Now, the vibrator is lowered to push & compress the aggregates to form a densified column structure. This process of Vibro replacement is repeated until the highly compacted column is formed up to the ground level.

As we use water here, this process is also known as the wet feed method.

Bottom feed method:

In this method, the aggregates are fed beneath the vibrator tool through the feed pipe. The feed pipe is attached alongside the vibrator, up to its tip level. The vibrator is lifted to a certain height to fill the voids by the aggregates. 

Once the voids are filled by aggregates, the vibrator is pushed downward for the compaction & densification of materials. This process is repeated to form an aggregate stone column up to the ground surface level.

As aggregates are fed in dry conditions, this process is referred to as the dry feed method.

3. What are the advantages & disadvantages of Vibro stone columns?


1. Increases bearing capacity of the soil.

2. Reduces the differential settlement of soil & foundation.

3. Helps to reduce foundation size.

4. Enhances the shear strength & friction angle of the soil.

5. Required foundation depth is minimized. 

6. Lowers soil permeability.

7. Enhances soil stiffness & stability.

8. More economical when compared to piling.


1. Not effective in all types of soils. This method works better for granular & non-cohesive soils.

2. Continuous in situ testing of the soil samples is necessary to install the Vibro stone columns.

3. Thorough soil investigation is required before preparing the construction drawing.

4. Required compaction cannot be achieved in granular soils if the percentage of clay or silt is > 15%.

4. What are the factors that affect the design of Vibro stone columns?

The factors that decide the design of Vibro stone columns are,

1. Type of soil.

2. Required installation depth.

3. The area to be treated.

4. The type of structure to be supported.

5. Required area replacement ratio.

6. In-situ soil properties.

7. The type of aggregate material used in the column & its parameter.

5. Where we can use the Vibro replacement stone columns?

The Vibro stone columns are used in several Civil engineering projects such as,

1. Bridge approaches & abutments.

2. Road embankments, retaining walls, & rail works.

3. In multi-storeyed buildings.

4. Industrial structures & warehouses.

6. Why the Vibro stone columns are used?

When we design a superstructure, we need firm strata or sub-surface soil to bear the superimposed loads. But this condition is not possible in all types of available soils.

Vibro stone columns are useful to eradicate such weak soil defects. This process helps to improve ground conditions & to enhance soil properties as per the design requirement.

7. What are the important aspects of Vibro stone columns?

1. The spacing of the columns is usually between  6' to 9' (1.8m. to 2.4m.).

2. The diameter of the vibrator probe is between 12 inches to 18 inches ( 300mm. - 450mm.).

3. The Vibro stone columns are constructed in the range of 2' to 4' ( 600mm. - 1200mm.) per lift of the vibrator probe.

4. The speed of drilling a hole ranges between  3' to 6' per min.(900mm. - 1800mm./minute).

5. The time taken by filling & compaction is between 1.5' to 3' per min. (450mm. - 900mm./minute).

For more such explanatory articles, click here.

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How to differentiate stainless steel grades SS202 & SS304?/How to know whether the used stainless steel grade is 202 or 304?

 As the name indicates, stainless steel is priced for its anti-rust & anti-corrosive properties. These properties are achieved by the right composition of elements such as chromium, molybdenum, nickel, & copper.

The market price of 304-grade is higher than the 202-grade stainless steel. So, there is a chance of replacing SS304 with SS202 by the contractor to earn more profit.

Therefore, it becomes necessary to know the grade of stainless steel utilized in your railing works.

Following are the different methods we can adopt to differentiate the stainless steel grades 202 & 304 from one another.

 1. Printed mark & logo:

When you purchase branded SS materials from the market, you will find the grade of steel embossed over the material. The name of the company or logo is also printed along with the SS grade.

Before utilizing the SS materials, you better check the steel grade of the individual pieces. 

The problem arises when you go for locally manufactured products, that do not contain grade markings for your confirmation. 

Following are the 3 other methods, that you can follow to find the grades of non-branded SS materials.

2. Steel grade tester:

The Stainless steel can be identified by using a steel-grade tester reagent as shown in the image.

The bottle contains about 15ml. of liquid reagents to test the SS grades. 

These bottles are priced at INR 30/- to INR 50/- per no.

When we drop these liquids over the stainless steel materials, they change their color as shown below.

By comparing the reaction colors with the color chart mentioned over the bottles, we can easily differentiate 304 & 202-grade stainless steel from one another. 

3. Spark test:

We can distinguish 304 & 202 grades while we cut them with metal cutting wheels or when we grind them with grinder wheels.

 304 grade:👉 The sparks produced are reddish-orange in color. The sparks fly a shorter distance. This is due to higher nickel content.

202 grade:👉  The sparks produced are yellowish in color. The sparks fly slightly longer distances when compared to the 304-type steel.

4. XRF gun:

 X-ray fluorescence guns are used to know the exact percentage of elements present in the alloys. We can analyze the compositions of different metals in all types of alloys. This method is used for larger projects where we need detailed analyzed reports.

As we already knew the composition of different types of stainless steel, we can find the SS grades by using the XRF gun.

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What are PVC skirting groove beads? - Advantages of using skirting groove beads.

Let us go through some of the FAQs related to PVC skirting groove beads.

 1. What is a PVC skirting groove bead?

PVC groove beads are F-shaped materials, installed along with the wall skirting to create grooves. At the junctions of wall & skirting, these beads are placed before POP/gypsum or wall surface finishings.

They provide a uniform groove above the skirting. By using the PVC groove beads, we can improve the quality of the skirting work. By installing these groove beads, we can create a rich appearance for the room & building.

2. What are the advantages of using skirting groove beads?

1. PVC groove beads create a uniform groove depth above the skirtings.

2. Improves the strength of the groove & prevents cracks at the junction. 

3. The height of the groove will be uniform without any flaws.

4.  Improves the edge strength.

5. Can be painted along with the finished wall surface.

6. Easy to install & saves labor work required in cutting the grooves.

7. Improves the finishes at the wall & skirting junctions. 

3. What are the available dimensions of PVC skirting groove beads?

The standard length of the PVC groove beads 👉 2.2m. (7' 2")

                                                  Groove size     👉 5mm, 6mm, 10mm, and 12mm.

                                                     Width           👉  10mm., 19mm.

                                                     Height          👉  9mm, 10mm.

4. What is the cost of PVC skirting beads?

The cost of the PVC skirting bead depends upon the quality & size of the material.

The cost of the skirting beads ranges from INR 40/- to INR 80/- per meter.

To go through all types of building materials used in construction, click here.

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What is drone surveying?/What are the benefits of drone surveying?

 Let us go through some of the FAQs related to drone surveying.

1. What is a drone land survey?

A drone survey is an aerial survey to capture the aerial data of a survey land from different angles. Drones are fitted with multispectral cameras & sensors. 

The drone survey provides us with numerous digital prints of the site. Each image is linked with the coordinates so that we can process & create detailed 2D & 3D maps.

2. Is the drone land survey accurate?

Yes. Drone flies at a lower altitude to capture high-resolution data. Several images are taken from different angles & they are overlaid to form the final data. So, there is no scope for errors in the survey maps formed by the drone survey. 

In a traditional survey, we come across human & instrumental errors. But as drones are unmanned data collectors, we find them more accurate & much faster.

3. What are the benefits of drone surveys?

1. Reduces working time: 

A traditional survey takes several days or even weeks to complete the work. The same task can be completed within a few hours in drone surveying.

2. Less manpower:

A drone survey does not need surveyors or more people to do the job. The data can be collected much more quickly & efficiently, that in turn saves the operative manpower.

3. Cost-effective: 

Drones can be used as & when required to capture the data. Drone survey saves us extra time, and required manpower, & hence they are cost-effective.

4. Provides accurate data:

The drones can produce thousands of measurements captured from all angles. So there is less scope for errors when compared to the manual mistakes or errors in traditional surveying. 

5. Accessibility:

The drone can fly in all the nooks & corners of our earth to collect the data. In the hilly areas & terrains, where manual reach out is impossible, drones are the best options for the survey work.

6. Tracking progress:

By using drones, we can capture snapshots of the land at various stages of ongoing work. They can be flown at required intervals to keep an eye on the day-to-day progress of the project work.

7. Safe to work:

 In traditional surveying, the workers are put at risk while accessing difficult areas. There are no such safety issues while we carry the drone surveying. Hence they are safe to work in all such unreachable topographical regions.

8. No dispute:

A drone survey provides visualized data so that non-surveyor can understand the work progress. Due to this visual source of information, there is no chance of disputes between the two parties.

4. How much does a drone survey cost?

The cost of a drone survey depends upon the type of survey & time involved in completing the job.

However, the general cost of the drone survey 👇

Per acre cost 👉  INR 2000/- to INR 10,000/- 

Per hour cost 👉  INR 1500/- to INR 5000/-

5. How does a drone survey work?

The drone survey uses geo-references & ground control points to create a data set. The aerial mapping incorporates ground control points in its high-accuracy images. This process of compiling data in the survey work is known as photogrammetry. 

The GNSS & GPS system is used for references to check the ground control points.

Drones are equipped with laser or lidar distance sensors, multispectral sensors, navigational systems such as GPS, altimeters, thermal sensors, etc.

 Once the images are captured from different angles, the compiled data are processed by software to create 2D or 3D survey maps.

To understand A to Z of surveying, click here.

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What are WPC louver panels?

 1. What are WPC louver panels?

WPC stands for wood polymer composites. These panels are used in the interior as well as the exterior of the building. The exterior panels are costlier as they are manufactured with UV-protected & non-fadable color pigments. 

WPC louver panels are used in the wall cladding, ceilings, and in the full or partial covering of interior pillars or columns.

2. What are the specifications or dimensions of WPC louver panels?

The standard dimension of WPC timber tubes are

 The length  👉 2850mm, 2900mm., & 2950mm.

          Width 👉  160mm. & 195mm.

          Depth or thickness 👉  Interior:14mm., 17mm.

                                               Exterior: 23mm., 25mm, & 27mm.

3. What is the market price of WPC louver panels?

The cost depends upon the texture, material quality, & dimension of the products. 

Exterior panels are costlier than interior WPC panels.

The market price starts from INR 850/- per no. & goes up to INR 1800/- per no.

WPC timber tubes of  std. quality & dimensions are available at INR 1200/- piece.

The installation cost of WPC louver panels

Interior  👉  INR 150/- to INR 200/- per no. of louver panel.

Exterior 👉   INR 200/- to INR 250/- per no. of louver panel.

4. What are the pros & cons of WPC louver panels?


1. Termite proof & waterproof.

2. Easy to nail or screw.

3. No painting or finishing is required.

4. Can be cut to any required design.

5. Does not rot or decay.

6. Provides a royal & architectural look to the structure.

7. Does not contain toxic chemicals.

8. Fire retardant.

9. They provide a consistent quality when compared to wood.

10. Low maintenance & washable.


1. Do not carry natural wood texture.

2. Unable to withstand extreme temperatures.

3. Comparatively costlier. 

4. Lower melting point.

To go through all types of building materials used in construction, click here.

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