All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

What are floor protection sheets?/Floor guard sheets./Floor covering sheets.

1.  What are floor protection sheets?

The sheet material used to guard all types of floorings & tiles against scratch or attrition during the construction project is said to be floor protection sheets.


In the earlier days, POP or newspaper was used to cover the floors, to prevent any damage. Nowadays, different types of floor guard sheets are available, that we can select as per our specifications.

They are easier to install & they keep a clean working space.


2. What are the benefits of floor protection sheets?

◆. Reusable:

These sheets can be removed & reused several times for different construction projects. The lifespan of the floor guard sheets depends upon their thickness & quality.

◆. High impact resistance:

When we do repair & innovation work of building, there is a chance of falling of heavier materials over the flooring. Floor guard sheets can withstand the impact of fallen materials to a higher degree, & thus protects valuable floorings.

◆. Easy to install:


Sheet installation does not need any skilled workers. After rolling the sheets over the flooring, the joints are taped to secure their position. The installation process for the entire building can be completed within a few hours.

◆. Clean working space:

Using POP as a floor protector creates dust & dirt in the interior. On the other hand, floor guard sheets form a hygienic & clean environment within the building.

◆. Easy to cut & fold:

They can be cut at any required length & can be folded with a bare hand to protect the skirting area.


◆. Cost-effective:

 They are reusable materials & can be installed very easily. The flooring does not lose its fresh appearance when we cover them with these sheets. All these factors make them cost-effective & must-buy items.


3. What is the price of floor protection sheets?

The cost of the floor protection sheet depends upon its

⬣. Thickness.

⬣. Type of material.

⬣. Brand & quality.

⬣. Length & breadth of the roll.

Considering all these factors the price of the sheet ranges from INR 3/- to INR 15/- per sq. ft.


4. What are the factors that affect the selection of floor protection sheets?

⬣. Floor price:

The cost of the installed flooring which we intend to protect becomes one of the main factors to select the type of sheets.

 Suppose, if the cost of the flooring is INR 30/- per sqft., then there is no logic in providing the sheets having a cost of about INR 15/- per sq ft.

We can go for the good quality sheets if the cost of installed flooring falls in a higher price range.

⬣. Working period:

If the interior working period is of shorter duration, we should not invest more money in buying floor sheets of greater thickness.

The cost of the floor guard sheets should be directly proportional to the duration of the construction work.

⬣. Type of work:

If the interior work involves heavier items, we should install higher-thickness sheets. Electrical & painting works do not need branded sheets for floor protection.

⬣. Type of building:

In residential buildings, we select the smaller size floor guard sheets that fit well into the individual room space. For commercial & public buildings we choose the sheets in roll form.


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What are dimmable LED lights?/Dimmable LED bulbs.

 1. What are dimmable LED bulbs?

The LED bulbs whose brightness can be adjusted to our most comfortable level are known as dimmable LED bulbs.


The brightness of the bulb is in our control, & we can set it at any required lumens, by turning the knob of the dimmer switch.


2. Can any LED light be dimmable?

NO. All LED bulbs are not compatible with this technology. It needs an inbuilt feature to work with a dimmer switch. Otherwise, the bulbs will only flicker & it may cause damage to the circuit.

The dimmable drivers within the dimmable bulbs are made to handle the drop in current. 

The drivers within the non-dimmable bulbs are good to work with two positions of switch, i.e. on & off. The dimmer switch may overload these bulbs & eventually, the LED driver of the non-dimmable bulb may fail.



So, you have to go for the bulbs mentioned as dimmable for a better lifespan & to save energy.


3. What is the difference between dimmable & non-dimmable LED bulbs?

In dimmable LED bulbs, the brightness can be adjusted as per our requirements.

 For eg: If we are reading books we can turn the dimmer switch for more brightness, whereas while watching movies, to get a good experience, we can dim the LED brightness.


In non-dimmable LED bulbs, the lumens or brightness will be the same. We cannot control the level of brightness.

Dimmable bulbs are expensive when compared to regular bulbs due to the added features.


4. Do dimmable bulbs save energy?

Dimmers use a triac switch that turns on & off at about 120 times/sec. This is perceived as a constant flow of light by our eyes. This circuit reduces the flow of energy to the light bulbs. This acts as a power saver & enhances the efficiency of the bulb.


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How to calculate the shuttering area of columns?

 The shuttering area of a column is calculated by the formula 

= [perimeter х height]


Mostly, we use columns of 3 different shapes in the construction field. They are rectangular, square, & circular.

The formula to calculate the perimeter of these 3 shapes differs from one another.


Now, let us look into 3 different shapes & their formula.

1. Square shape:


Perimeter = [4nos. х sides]

                 = [4 х S ]

Where, S = sides of square column section.


2. Rectangular shape:


Perimeter = 2nos. х [length + breadth]

                  = 2nos. х [ L + B]

Where, L = sectional length of the column

            B = sectional breadth of the column.


3. Circular shape:


Perimeter (circumference) = [ 2πr ]

Where, r = radius of the circle.


Eg:

Find the shuttering area of the below given rectangular column.


Given data:

Height of the column = 3m.

The breadth of the column = B = 230mm.= 0.23m.

Length of the column = L = 350mm. = 0.35m.


Calculation:

The shuttering area of the column

= [(perimeter ) х height]

= [(2nos. х [ L + B]) х height]

= [(2nos. х [ 0.35m. + 0.23m.]) х 3m.]

= [(2nos. х [ 0.58m.]) х 3m.]

= [1.16m х 3m.]

= 3.48 m²


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What is horizontal directional drilling?

 1. What is horizontal directional drilling?



Horizontal directional drilling is a process of boring a horizontal tunnel to install underground pipelines, cables, conduits, etc.

In this technique, a drilling rig is used for horizontal drilling in a pre-decided path.


2. Why is horizontal directional drilling used?



When there is a necessity to lay pipelines or cables beneath the rivers, roadways, & any such infrastructures, we use the horizontal directional drilling method. This is because, in this method, there is no need to dig the trenches. 

To carry out piping works, we cannot disturb the existing roads, canals, water bodies, etc. by cutting & blocking them.

HDD method comes in handy in such situations & work can be finished smoothly without any hurdles.


3. What are the benefits of using HDD?

Following are some benefits of using the HDD method.

◆.  Trenchless laying of pipelines & cables.

◆.  No disturbance to the public & moving traffic.

◆.  Less environmental pollution.

◆.  More efficient & faster installation work.

 ◆. Cost-effective as there are savings in time & labor.


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What are 3D-printed buildings?/FAQs over 3D-printed buildings.

1. What are 3D-printed buildings?




The buildings that are built by using the latest construction technology that uses the 3D printing method are known as 3D-printed buildings. 

The machine printer lays down a thin layer of materials over one another to create the structure. The machine is commanded by the digital designs, that are stored in the hard drives of the computer.

With this technology, the house can be built within very less time & involves minimal workers.

 

2. How much does it cost for a 3D-printed house in India?

As per the startup company Tvasta, the cost of a 3D-printed house will be around 5 lakhs to 5.5 lakhs. The cost is nearly 20% of the construction cost of conventional 2BHK houses.


3. Which is the first 3D-printed house in India?

The first 3D-printed house was built on IIT -Madras campus by a startup company  Tvasta. It is a 1BHK house, having a built-up area of 600 sq. ft.


The inauguration of the house was done by Finance Minister Nirmala Sita Raman on 27th April 2021.


4. Are 3D -printed houses strong?

As 3D-printed buildings are quite young, there is no time-tested proof for their strength & longevity.

As per the company's claims, 3D-printed houses are stronger & can withstand a lot of additional forces.


5. What is the lifespan of a 3D-printed building?

A well-constructed 3D-printed building will last for a minimum of 100 years & could cross 300 years of lifespan. 

To enhance its lifespan, the 3D-printed layers should be built as one structural body having proper hydration throughout its construction process.

The lifespan is calculated based on the material properties & comparable study of the building models.


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Why we do not provide circular columns in house construction?/Why are columns rectangular or square in shape in buildings?

Let us go through 7 different reasons that make us avoid circular columns in the building framework.


 1. Architectural appearance:


When we provide a circular column in the framed structure, they bulge out of the masonry wall. We cannot align their outer surface in line with the wall surface. 

The curved surface in the exterior & interior of the building looks odd from the architectural point of view.


2. Space utilization:


A round column eats more space in the building interiors. As you can observe in the above drawing, a round column obstructs the corner placing of the bed cot & needs more space for circulation. 

In the case of the rectangular column, we can utilize the total interior as they fall in alignment with the wall surface.


3. Door & window fixing:


Let us consider fixing doors D1 & D2 at column points C7 & C9 respectively, as shown above.

Which one will be easier for you?

Definitely, you will select door D2 as an easy go for installation. Here again, door D1 makes a waste of space when we open it. But, door D2 touches the wall surface & the space is utilized fully.

The same thing is true when we install windows at the column junctions. 


4. Orientation:

The orientation of the column is done in such a way that the sectional length of the column is in the major plane of bending. The columns are made in a rectangular shape & oriented in the direction to resist the moments as required.

If you want to know more about this concept in detail,

Go through the article 👇

👀.   How the orientation of the column is decided?

If we provide a circular column, we cannot take advantage of its shape. If we orient the round columns, it won't make any change in the moment-resisting capability of the column.


5. Formwork:



Formwork for the round shape needs MS materials to manufacture the molds. Extra care is needed for its erection, casting, & finishing. We cannot use the same mold when the diameter of the column changes. 

The formwork for the square or rectangular shape is made easily by using battens & plywood. We can utilize this formwork for different sizes & any building carpenter can do this job.

Therefore, casting the round columns is expensive & time-consuming.


6. Finishing:

Plastering & finishing over a round shape is a tedious job when compared to flat surfaces. They need skilled workers, & again that adds more money to our construction budget.


7. Sign board:



Rectangular shape provides a flat surface for the advertising, display boards, & sign boards. We cannot utilize the surface of round-shaped columns as they are not observable & noticeable. 

Here I am talking about open columns in the basements & in the interior of commercial buildings.


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Why do we use circular reinforcement bars in civil construction?/Why reinforcement steel bars are made round in shape?

Let us discuss the 5 reasons for providing a circular shape to the reinforcement bars.

1. Equal load distribution:


In circular bars, the distance from the center point to its periphery is equal in all directions, but the same is not true in all other shapes. So, when stress is applied to the reinforcement bar, the round shape distributes them evenly, all over the section.

As you can observe in the above drawing, the diagonal length of the square section is more than the length & breadth of the section. Therefore, the applied stress won't get uniformly distributed all over the square section. The stresses get accumulated at the diagonal end, which is not preferred in the structural design. 


2. Cost-effective:

The steel bars are manufactured by passing the red-hot materials through a series of rollers. The round shape is much easier to produce as they don't have edges. Square or any other shape needs chamfering work at the edges that add a piece of extra machinery. 


In the case of circular shapes, the manufacturing of different diameter bars is easier & faster. The savings in production time, machinery, & labor make the round shape, a more cost-effective option than any other shape.


3. Easy to bend:



In the construction field, we need to cut & bend the reinforcement bars as per the design requirements. Out of all the shapes, the circular bars are easier to bend & work faster.

The corners of the stirrups made of circular bars produce uniform curvature, without any cracks. The other shapes may get dents or cuts at the corners, which is not advisable. 


4. Orientation & twist:



Note: The size of the bars is magnified for your understanding.

When we erect the bars of columns, the individual bars may twist or orient slightly. In such cases, the round shape does not affect the binding & installation process. The rotation of bars won't disturb the c/c distance & concrete cover.

Other shapes when twisted or rotated, are difficult to work with, due to their corners. The c/c distance & effective cover may change slightly, due to their higher diagonal length.


 5. Center of gravity:

The CG of the circular shape does not shift from its center position when rotated in either a clockwise or anticlockwise direction. 

However, the CG of the square or rectangular shape changes its position when rotated. This affects the load distribution pattern of the structure, as we cannot check each & every bar to be on the perfect axis.


Other advantages:

◆. Concrete flow:

When we pour the concrete, the round shape of the bar does not disturb the flow of concrete. The corners of the square shape may stop the easy movement of coarse aggregates.

 In heavily reinforced structures, the rebars having cornered edges may help in producing honeycombed concrete surfaces.


◆. Threading for coupler:



It is easier to thread round steel bars for joining with couplers. Threading needs extra effort in other shapes & in this process, the size of the bar gets reduced.

Go through the article 👇

👀. Why we do not provide circular columns in house construction?


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How to convert degree Celsius to Fahrenheit & vice versa./Concept behind the conversion of Celsius to Fahrenheit.

 Let us go through the temperature scales, to know them in a better way as below.



The formula to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit is

°F = [°C 🇽 (9/5) +32]

     = [1.8 °C +32]

Eg:

    Now, let us convert the boiling point of water from °C to ° F.

As you know, the boiling point of water = 100°C.

°F = [(1.8 🇽 100) +32]

      = [180 + 32]

    °F = 212°


The formula to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius is

°C = [(°F -32) 🇽 5/9]

Eg:

  Now, let us convert the normal body temperature from °F to ° C.

As you know, the normal body temperature = 98.6°F.

°C = [(98.6 -32) 🇽 5/9]

     = [ 66.6  🇽 5/9]

  °C = 37°


Let us go through some of the FAQs related to degree Celsius & Fahrenheit.


1. How much Fahrenheit is 1°C?

°F = [(1.8 🇽 °C) +32]

     = [(1.8 🇽 1) +32]

      = [1.8 +32] 

 °F = 33.8

1°C is equal to 33.8°F


2. What is the concept behind the conversion formula between degree Celsius & Fahrenheit?



In the Celsius scale, the temperature of melting ice is considered as 0°C & that of boiling water as 100°C. The difference between the two fixed points is equally divided into 100 parts & each part is taken as 1°C.

In the Fahrenheit scale, the temp. of melting ice is fixed at 32°F & that of boiling water at 212°F. The difference between the two fixed points is equally divided into 180 parts (212 - 32=180) & each division is considered as  1°F.

So, when we draw both scales graphically, their top & bottom point over the axis will be the same.

Let us consider an a°C. point over the scale as shown below.



When we measure the distance of a°C from the base in Celsius scale

= [L 100 х a °C]

The same distance over the Fahrenheit scale

=  [L 180 х (a °F -32)]

Now,  

[(L 100) х a °C] = [(L 180) х (a °F -32)]

Canceling L on both sides,

[a°C 100] =  [(a °F -32) 180]

(a °F -32) = [(a°C 100) х 180]

Canceling 'a' on both sides,

(°F -32) = (9 °C 5)

°F = [9/5 х °C +32]

°F = [1.8  х °C +32]


3. What is the difference between degree Celsius & degree Centigrade?

Celcius & Centigrade were the same temperature scale named at different time periods.

In the earlier days, the word Centigrade was used in which Centi refers to 100 divisions within the scale & grade for the gradients.

In 1948, the temperature scale was standardized with a more precise definition & named after the inventor as Celsius.

Nowadays, we use both words depending on our geographical locations, but the official term is Celsius.  


4. At what temp. point both  °Celsius & °Fahrenheit will show the same reading?

The answer is - 40°

Let us check:

 °F = [(1.8 🇽 °C) +32]

      = [(1.8 🇽 -40°) +32]

      = [ -72 + 32 ]

 °F = - 40°


Thank you for going through these calculation steps. Have a good day 😄.

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