All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

What is an artificial vertical garden?/Pros & cons of artificial vertical garden.

 1. What is an artificial vertical garden?

Artificial vertical gardens are fake plants made of plastic or similar type of synthetic materials. They contain grills & interlocking panels at the back side for the vertical installation.

These artificial gardens have both indoor & outdoor applications to beautify the area as shown in the below image.

2. What are the advantages & disadvantages of artificial vertical gardens?


1. No watering:

 Natural plants need regular watering for their growth. The artificial plant saves us from our watering job.  

2. Evergreen look: 

They stay evergreen in all seasons, unlike natural plants. The UV protection keeps them away from fading when exposed to direct sunlight. 

3. Less maintenance:

 No cutting & pruning is needed to keep them at a uniform level. No need to collect the fallen leaves which is a must-do for natural plants.

4. Creating a calm space: 

A green-colored vertical garden gives a calm & soothing environment.

5. Non-allergic: 

Some people have allergies to pollen grains. The artificial garden is the perfect choice for such individuals.

6. Indoor & outdoor application:

Natural gardens cannot do well in indoor areas due to a lack of sunlight. The artificial garden is good to set up anywhere in outdoors or indoors, to give a greener touch. 


1. Natural look: 

 In appearance, fake plants cannot beat natural ones. 

2. Clean air:  

They cannot produce oxygen by replacing the surrounding carbon dioxide. Natural plants provide us with fresh air to breathe.

3. Non-organic:

They are synthetic products & are not part of an ecosystem.

3. How to install a vertical garden over the wall?


1. The measurement of the length & breadth of the wall area where you want to install the vertical garden is noted down. 

 2. Vertical garden panels are interlocked with each other before installation on the floor by the snap lock mechanism to create the single unit of required measurement. 

3. The wall is nailed with PVC or suitable mesh to cover the entire area. The mesh should be green in color so that it matches the vertical garden as shown below.

4. The artificial panel contains grilled mesh at the base surface for the installation process as shown below. 

By using green-colored zip ties, the vertical garden panels are locked tightly to the nailed mesh area at regular intervals. The extra length of zip ties is cut down after tightening work.

 5. The installation work is continued until you cover all the required areas by repeating the above process.

4. What is the dimension of artificial vertical garden panel tiles?

The widely available size of vertical garden panels are

                                  Length       👉  60cm ( 24")

                                  Width        👉 40cm ( 16" )

                                  Thickness  👉  8cm. (3")

                                  Cover area 👉  2.7 sqft.

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What are metal wall arts?/Installation guide of metal wall art.

Let us go through some of the FAQs related to metal wall art as follows.

 1. What are metal wall arts?

Metal wall arts are the decorative items used to enhance the aesthetic appearance of the building's interior. They are hung over the plain wall surface of all types of buildings such as hotels, office cabins, home interiors, etc. to beautify these areas.

Metal wall arts are also available with LED lights provided at the back side so that it will glow at night time.

Metal wall arts are made of all types of metals & alloys like iron, copper, aluminum, bronze, etc. as primary material. The interior body of wall art may contain glass pieces, beads, fibers, etc. to provide the needed appearance.

2. Where we should hang or install metal wall art?

The metal wall art should be hung over the smooth & plain wall surface of the building interior. The contrast color of the wall art against the wall painting looks good. That means, if the shade of the wall painting is a light color, the metal art should be chosen in a darker color design. 

 The height of the metal wall art should be such that it should not touch your head or shoulders when you walk near the wall area.

They should not be hung over existing wallpapers, PVC wall panels, or any printed boards installed over the wall surface. This spoils the beauty of artwork & fails to create its stylish impact of decor.

3. Can we hang metal wall art on the exterior wall surface?

The primary material used in making the wall art is iron & other metals. The exterior weather brings dullness & iron may get rusted over time. 

The best option is to use fiber wall hangings at the exterior wall surface of the entrance door rather than hanging metal art.

4. How to install metal wall art?

The best height for hanging the metal wall art is at eye level for easy viewing. That means, the center of the artwork should be between 4.5ft. to 5.5ft. from the floor level.


1. We have to measure the distance between the center of two no. of hooks provided at the backside of the wall art.

2. Draw a straight line over the wall at the needed height by using a spirit level.

3. Mark the measured distance of the wall art hook over the straight line drawn.

4. Drill the two holes using a drill machine & insert the wall plug.

5. If the weight of the metal wall art is above 10 kg., use heavier screws, nails, or J- hooks to support the item.

6. The screws should be inserted in such a way that the depth of the wall art hook should be equal to the depth of the screw part left on the outer side of the wall surface for hanging purposes.

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Different types of mosquito nets (mesh) for doors & windows./ Various types of mosquito nets for openings.

Let us go through the different types of mosquito nets used at the door & window openings.

A). Based on the operating style:

1. Detachable mosquito net:

These nets can be easily removed whenever necessary for cleaning & washing purposes. They contain a hook & loop system of velcro strips at the periphery of the net.

 Detachable nets are widely used due to their simplicity, low price,  & easily removable option.

 2. Rolling mosquito net:

The nets have aluminum, UPVC, or FRP frames to slide over the track. The mosquito net frame moves up & down vertically over the track to the required height.

Other than windows, these nets can be used for larger openings to protect against insects & mosquitoes.

3. Fixed mosquito net:

The mosquito net is made by using MS frames to maintain stability & required dimension. These nets are fixed to the windows by screwing them at regular intervals.

Usually, these nets are installed at the exterior side of the window so that they won't disturb the opening & closing operation of the window.

4. Pleated thread mosquito net:

These nets provide horizontal sideway movements for the operation. They are made of strong polyester thread with a filament core to work on tension-based technology. 

They can sustain higher wind pressure. Pleated thread nets are ideal for larger openings such as balconies, full-width windows, and doors.

Other than barring insects, this system also filters dust particles to a certain degree.

5. Sliding mosquito net:

Instead of glass, a mosquito net is fixed in the aluminum sliding windows. Usually, 3-track sliding windows are made having a net embedded in any one or two tracks.

When the windows are fully closed, this net system helps to block the insects but allows the partial flow of air through them.

For the independent operation of sliding nets, the system is installed separately over two tracks adjacent to the aluminum sliding windows, having glassed frames.

6. Hinged mosquito net:

The net is installed within the hinged metal frames. In such window opening types, the hinged frames are provided at the exterior side.

 The inner part contains sliding windows having MS grills located at the center. Closing the hinged net frame blocks the insects but allows the air within the room. To prevent the entry of air, the inner sliding window is closed to the required level.


7. Magnetic mosquito net:

They have magnetic strips lined at the joining edges of the two parts of the net. These strips open with a gentle touch & close automatically due to magnets.

Velcro tape is used at the door frame boundaries to hold them in position. They block insects & mosquitoes but allow the cool breeze through the openings.

8. Barrier-free mosquito net:

The mosquito net without obstruction at the floor level is known as a barrier-free net. The mesh moves over the guide strip with the help of the caterpillar chain.
This guide strip prevents accidental falling of people due to obstruction at floor level.

B). Based on materials:

1. Fiberglass mosquito mesh:

They are corrosion-resistant materials having the ability to withstand high temperatures. The fiberglass mesh can be cut easily to the required size for installation. They come in a roll of various lengths.

When compared to metallic mesh, they are cheaper & are widely used. 

2. Aluminum mosquito mesh:

They fit stiffly & evenly within the frame without any folds in between. Usually, they are used in aluminum framed mosquito nets to provide an architectural look.

Aluminum is an anti-rust, lightweight material having a longer life span. 


3. Stainless steel mosquito mesh:

Stainless steel nets are used to provide a richer look to the openings. They are tough & strong, which gives extra security to the windows.

They are a little expensive but have a longer shelf life. 

4. Plastic mosquito mesh:

Plastic mesh is the cheapest version in all types of available materials. They cut & form a hole easily by the accidental touch of sharp items.
As they melt at higher temperatures, plastic mesh is not suitable for kitchens & fire-prone areas.

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Types of concrete paver molds based on materials./Different types of mold we can use in manufacturing the concrete pavers.

 Let us go through the different types of molds used in making concrete pavers.

1. Rubber molds:

Rubber molds are sturdy & can be utilized multiple no. of times in the paver manufacturing process. The end product has a high gloss surface finish. 

Rubber molds are used when the pavers are manufactured over vibratory tables. The initial investment is higher as each mold can produce one paver per day. Once the poured concrete in the mold becomes hard enough, we can repeat the production cycle by releasing the pavers from the mold. 
The rubber mold produces the pavers having accurate dimensions with sharp edges.   

2. MS molds:

These molds are used when the pavers are made by hydraulic paver-making machines. Due to high compression, the pavers are released immediately by hydraulic plates. One set of mold is enough to make the pavers of a particular pattern. 

The paver set farma may contain one, two, four, or six no. of paver molds within the farma box, depending upon the capacity of the machine.

3. Plastic molds:

Plastic molds are cheap when compared to rubber & other types of molds. But they are hard, less bendable, & need more time to release the end product. 

A mold release agent is a must to remove the pavers without breakage & have a perfect finish. The repetitive life cycle of plastic molds is less in comparison to rubber molds.

As the initial investment is less, this type of mold is perfect for micro units having a low startup budget.

4. Silicone molds:

Silicon latex rubber is utilized to produce these molds. When compared to plastic molds, they are more durable & easy to free the paver product.

They are more expensive & we need a higher initial investment. The high-quality silicone mold does not need release agents.

Silicone molds are best suited to manufacture quality products having a smooth & shiny surfaces. 

5. Polyurethane mold:

They are a DIY type of mold. We can make our own molds by pouring urethane resins over the required paver pattern to form a mold. 

We need sealing agents & release agents as they tend to stick to the paver surfaces. 

The main advantage is, they are twistable & bendable to a higher degree to free the products. 

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What is a pan concrete mixer?/ When do we use pan mixers instead of drum mixers?

 1. What is a concrete pan mixer?

Concrete pan mixers are power-operated machines to blend raw materials such as sand, cement, grit, fly ash, aggregates, etc. to prepare a homogeneous concrete.

They contain rotating blades or rollers within a stationary pan-like container to mix the raw material. The prepared concrete is taken out from the discharge door provided at the side wall of the pan.

2. What are the different types of concrete pan mixers?

a.) Blade pan mixer:

They contain mixing & sweeping blades for blending action. Usually, 4 blades are provided for the preparation of concrete. Two blades rotate at the outer periphery of the pan, while the other two blades cover the inner radial area.

They are available in different capacities as per the customer's needs. 

Blade pan mixers are mostly used while manufacturing precast construction products such as pavers, fly ash bricks, flower pots, etc.

b). Roller pan mixer:

They contain two no. of rollers along with two nos. of sweeping blades. The rollers grind the raw material to create a uniform mixture of all the raw materials. 
When we use lime, fly ash, & grit as ingredients, roller pan mixers are the best option for preparing mortars & concrete.
Lime & fly ash needs grinding action to form a superior & homogeneous blending.
Similar to blade pan mixers, these mixers are also available in various capacities & dimensions to suit the customer's requirements. 

Both these types of pan mixers may or may not contain hoppers to feed the raw materials. Hopper attachment helps for higher output & more production.

Go through the article 👇

👀.  Different types of concrete mixers.

3. Why do we use a concrete pan mixer instead of a drum mixer?

There is one main difference between the pan & drum mixers while preparing the concrete.

In drum mixers, the mixing blades are attached to the drum that moves along with the rotating drum. But in the pan mixers, the pan is kept stationary & the blade or rollers rotate at the required RPM.

The pan mixers make grinding, agitation, & blending actions to produce the concrete.

 The drum mixer is only good at agitating the raw materials due to the gravitational fall of the mixed ingredients. We get the homogeneous mixing only when we feed coarse aggregates into the drum. 

For the mixing of finer raw materials such as sand, grit, fly ash, lime, cement, etc. we need pan mixers. Or we can say that in the absence of coarse aggregates, we need pan mixers for the production of higher-quality concrete.  

Another disadvantage of a drum mixer is that finer ingredients stick to the inner wall of the drum in the absence of coarse aggregates. As the blades cannot do sweeping action, we have to remove the sticky material for every rotational cycle of the drum.

Therefore, we consider using pan mixers in the manufacturing of construction products, where the blending of different colors & finer materials takes place. 

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Different types of concrete block making machines./Classification of cement block making machine.

 Let us go through the different types of concrete block-making machines.

A. Manual block-making machine:

In this type of machine, one or two blocks can be made per stroke. The compression of the block is achieved manually by the lever action. Steel or wooden pallets are used in making the blocks.

We cannot achieve the required compression, as these machine does not contain a vibrational platform for the material compaction. 

Capacity 👉 250 -300 blocks/shift.

B. Mechanical/Electrical block-making machine:

1. Auto ramming block-making machine (semi-automatic):

Auto ramming machine produces two blocks per stroke. Similar to the manual type, wooden or steel pallets are used in making the blocks.
This machine contains two separate motors for the vibration & compaction of blocks. They are stationary type of machines & they need bolting or concrete foundation for their base.

Concrete material of the required proportion is prepared in a mixer & they are poured into the block molds. After the vibrational action, the material in the block mold was rammed 30 to 40 times to achieve compaction. 

Capacity 👉  400 to 550 blocks/shift.

2. Egg-laying type block-making machine (automatic):

This is the most common & widely used type of block machine. Instead of pallets, this machine needs a concrete platform to produce the blocks. This machine makes 5 to 7 blocks per stroke depending upon the size of the block.

The ramming action is done by a hydraulic system. They contain wheels to move over the platform in forward & reverse directions. After the production of 5 blocks/stroke, the molds were lifted by a hydraulic lever. The machine is moved forward & the molds are brought down to settle over the PCC platform to continue with the next cycle.

Capacity 👉  800 to 1000 blocks/shift.

3. PLC controlled block making machine (fully automatic):

The block-making process is PLC controlled for all the operations. The material is directly fed into the mixing chamber through the conveyor. 
In the production process, this machine consumes the raw material as per the requirement. The pallets are auto conveyed & stacked one over the other.

Capacity 👉  5000 to 8000 blocks/shift.

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Different types of gates based on their functions & operations./Classification of building gates.

Let us go through different types of gates based on their functions & operating method.

1. Swing gate: 

These gates contain vertical hinges & hooks at the pillar end for the swinging action. The swing gate needs enough space on either side of the entrance for its opening. 
We can operate these gates with remote control, by fitting an automatic gate opener device. 

2. Sliding gate:

These gates move horizontally on a track installed over the floor surface. The gate contains wheels at the bottom to move over the track. The track should be kept free from debris for easy movement of the gate.

 The opening area is not needed for sliding gates & they are ideal for places that don't have enough space for swinging action. They are easy to operate, as the load is directly transferred to the ground track. 

3. Vertical pivot gate:

The free end of the gate is lifted in the air for the public & vehicles to pass through. The sensor detects the moving object & opens automatically by mechanical action. 

They do not need extra space as they only move in the vertical direction. They are expensive types of gates but are useful for the unmanned closure of the access point.

4. Turnstile gate:

Turnstile gates are used to control the access of pedestrians. It is a one-way type of gate, allowing one person to pass at a time. These gates are used to restrict the passage for scanning or to allow people who have tickets or a pass.

These gates are used as entry points to a public transportation system or in sports events.

Nowadays, turnstile gates were incorporated with biometrics, retina scanning, & fingerprints for the grant of access.

5. Retractable gate:

This gate contains wheels at the base to move in either direction when the gates are folded. The cross-linked panel sections help to fold them into parts for opening & closing action.

They can be manually or mechanically operated. These gates are detachable types when not necessary & can be stored.

6. Automatic gate:

These are the power-operated gates that can be opened by remote control. This gate is highly secured, as it grants access to those who have an entry code or remote control.

Automatic gates are best suited for industrial units to allow access to employers & to cut down the entry of strangers.


7. Revolving gate:

You will find such types of gates in the zoo, parks, & in some public places. They help to ban the entry of animals. 
These gates can be revolved in a clockwise or anti-clockwise direction for inward & outward movement. The central pipe body is fitted with bearings & shafts for the 360° rotation.

8. Barrier gate:

They contain horizontal channels or fabricated pipes installed over a single pillar. Barrier gates are raised or lowered to control traffic movements.
These gates are usually found at the controlled access areas to block the movements for checking purposes. 

9. Collapsible gate:

The channel patties are riveted at the junctions for the scissor-like movements.  When the gate is pushed sidewards, diamond-shaped openings within the gate will collapse. 

The gates are made having two-fold movement on either side or single-fold opening at any one side of the compound wall.

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Different types of gates based on materials./ Classification of compound wall gates.

Let us go through the different types of gates based on the materials used in manufacturing them.

1.  MS gate:

This is the most common type of gate, widely used all over the world due to its versatility. These gates are made in numerous designs & patterns by using various types of MS materials such as pipes, channels, bars, angles, sheets, etc.
Any local fabricator can make customized gates as per your requirements.
MS gate needs seasonal painting works to avoid rusting.

2. Wrought iron gate:

Wrought iron gates are made by utilizing prefinished foundry materials for the design requirements. These gates look beautiful due to the decorative & ornamental components of wrought iron.

3. Stainless steel gate:

The stainless steel gate provides a shiny & rich look to the building. In the construction industry, 304 or 202-grade steel is used for manufacturing these gates.

When compared to MS gates, they are expensive. But they don't need yearly maintenance & painting.

4. Wooden gate:

If the entrance needs the traditional look, these gates are the better choice. The wood needs protective sealing at regular intervals for its longer life span.

5. Aluminum gate:

You may find aluminum gates in the compound walls of industrial units, storage sheds, godowns, etc. As aluminum is a lightweight material, we can manufacture such gates with more heights to provide the required privacy & security.

6. Vinyl gate:

Vinyl is a synthetic plastic, made of ethylene & chlorine. These gates do not need painting & can be cleaned easily. 

There is no limit to the design possibilities, & customized gates are available having needed measurements, styles, textures, colors, etc.

7. Polycarbonate gate:

Polycarbonates are thermoplastic polymers having carbonate groups as chemical structures. These materials have good impact resistance properties. These gates provide a look-through view when we install a transparent polycarbonate sheet.

8. Composite material gates:

Two or more materials are used in making such types of gates. Outer frames are made of any metals & the inner body is built with different materials such as FRP, polycarbonates, polyvinyl, etc.

The metal provides needed strength & stability, while the inner material helps to beautify the gate.

9. Bamboo pole gate:

You will find such types of gates in farmhouses, restaurants, public parks, jungle resorts, etc. A bamboo gate gives a natural look to the entry point.

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