# PARAM VISIONS

All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

• ### PARAM VISIONS

The vision of present and future

• ### BUILDING MATERIALS

Different types of building materials at a glance

• ### DESIGN AND DRAWING

For clear ideas in calculating building materials and structural design

• ### BUILDING DECORATION AND GARDENING

Interior and exterior of the buildings,land scaping,home gardening,fengshui and vastu made easier

• ### INFRASTRUCTURE AND USEFUL TIPS

We share useful tips in building construction and infrastructure knowledge

### 3 common mistakes in the roofing sheet calculations. / Roofing sheet calculation tips.

The 3 most common mistakes while calculating the number of roofing sheets required for the building is as follows.

1. Slope calculation:

If the length of the building is 10ft. and suppose if the slope given is 2ft then the length of the sheet to cover the building will be the hypotenuse of the triangle, i.e. 10.20 ft. as shown in the drawing.

Instead of calculating the slope length, some contractors simply take the outer dimension of the plinth i.e. 10ft. which gives a shortage of 0.2 ft. in the sheet length.

2. Overlapping calculation :

Let us consider the length of the roofing sheet as ' L ' and the length of the overlapping as ' d '     as shown in the drawing.

Then the length covered by the 3 sheets is equal to ( 3L - 2d )

If you deduct the overlapping ' d ' for the no. of sheets taken i.e. ( 3L -3d ), then it is a calculation mistake.

Note

This calculation should be done on both the axis, i.e. length as well as width side of the roofing sheet.

3. Dimensional unit calculation :

Normally when we purchase the sheets from the market, the dimensions referred to by the trader are say 10 ft., then the actual size of the sheet may be 3.0 meters. When we convert the 3mtr. in to feet, it comes to  (3.0m ×3.281) =  9.84 ft. instead of 10 ft.

This difference of 0.16 ft. cumulatively for all the sheets gives a big calculation mistake.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day ðŸ˜„.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day ðŸ˜„.

### 5 MAIN DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ONE WAY SLAB & TWO WAY SLAB

Now, let us observe the 5 main differences between the one-way slab & two-way slab

 No. One-way slab Two-way slab 1. (Lx / Ly) > or = 2Where Lx  = Longer span                    Ly =  Shorter span (Lx / Ly) < 2Where Lx =  Longer span Ly =  Shorter span

 2 The main reinforcement is provided in one direction i.e. Ly. Distribution bar is provided in longer span i.e. Lx. Main reinforcement is provided in two directions i.e. Lx & Ly

 3 Loads are carried by the structure in one direction. Loads are carried by the structure in both the direction.

 4 Supported by the beams in opposite directions. Supported by the beams on all four sides.

 5 Bends like a cut portion of the cylinder Bends like a cut portion of the sphere.

### 7 common mistakes in the plinth beam./ Plinth beam construction process./How to avoid mistakes in a plinth beam?

While providing a plinth beam for the building, some common mistakes which I have observed are given below.

1.  Development length:

Provide the rebar with the needed development length and 10 times bar dia. which is given as Ld + 10Db or say L -length/ hook. Curtailing the bar at the column end is technically wrong.

2.  Bar diameter:

The diameter of the bottom reinforcement should not be less than 12mm (IS 456) and the top rebar should not be less than 10mm. diam. as shown in the drawing. Providing the rebar of 10mm. and 8mm dia. is one of the mistakes which should be avoided.

3. Nominal & clear cover :
Providing the cover for the reinforcement bar on all 4 sides is essential, as shown in the drawing, but when the beam is placed over the brickwork, avoiding cover for the bottom rebar is a wrong practice.

4. The spacing of the stirrup :
Providing a spacing of 150 -175 mm at the center and 125 - 150 mm near the column end is a good practice to avoid the settlement of masonry work. One of the mistakes done here is keeping the spacing at 300mm and above, to save the stirrup rings is a mistake that should be avoided.

To know the checklist for beam shuttering, go through the articleðŸ‘‡

ðŸ‘€. Checklist for beam shuttering./What are the points to be checked in beam formwork?

5. Ld at the T- junction :

As explained earlier, the development length Ld should not be curtailed at the junction of the 2 beams or at the T formed at the column and another plinth beam.

6. Cleaning the beam:

After completing the plinth beam work for the building, usually, the next procedure followed will be moorum filling in the plinth. After completing the filling work, the contractor on the site, neglect to clean the plinth beam surface.

Brick masonry work built on such an uncleaned beam top will result in weak bonding and ultimately ends in the cracks at such joints. Please take care to clean them properly.

7. Formwork :

Using building blocks or bricks as the side formwork for the plinth beam is also a mistake. Do you know why? The reason is, they absorb the water and cement slurry, making the weak concrete of different grades.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day ðŸ˜„.

If you want to understand them in a better way with an explanation, click on the video given below