# PARAM VISIONS

All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

• ### PARAM VISIONS

The vision of present and future

• ### BUILDING MATERIALS

Different types of building materials at a glance

• ### DESIGN AND DRAWING

For clear ideas in calculating building materials and structural design

• ### BUILDING DECORATION AND GARDENING

Interior and exterior of the buildings,land scaping,home gardening,fengshui and vastu made easier

• ### INFRASTRUCTURE AND USEFUL TIPS

We share useful tips in building construction and infrastructure knowledge

### How to calculate the labor cost for RCC columns?/ Labor rate for the RCC columns.

Let us consider a column as shown in the below-given drawing.

Given data:

Column size = 230mm. × 300mm.= 0.23m. × 0.30m.

Height of the column = 3m.

Before proceeding further, Go through the articleðŸ‘‡

1. Column concreting:

The labor rate of column concreting will be between INR 600/- to 1000/- per CUM.

Let us take the average rate of INR 800/- per CUM.

The labor cost of column concreting

= [total vol. of concrete in CUM × rate/CUM.]

=[0.207 CUM × 800/-]

= INR 165.60/-

Note: The vol. of concrete is taken from the above-linked article.

2.  Reinforcement:

The labor rate of column reinforcement work will be between INR 9/- to 15/- per kg.

Let us take the average rate of INR 12/- per kg.

The labor cost of column reinforcement

= [total wt. of steel in kgs. × labor rate/kg.]

= [ 23.81 kg. × 12/-]

= INR 285.72/-

Note: The wt. of steel is taken from the above-linked article.

3. Formwork:

The labor rate of column shuttering work will be between INR 11/- to 17/- per sq ft.

Let us take the average rate of INR 14/- per sq ft.

or INR 150/- per sq m.

The total area of shuttering work

= [(area of width side) + (area of length side)]

= [( 2nos. × 0.23m. × 3m.) + (2nos. × 0.30m × 3m.)]

=[ (1.38sq m.) + ( 1.80 sq m.)]

= 3.18 sq m.

The labor cost of column formwork

= [total area of formwork in sq m. × labor rate/sq m.]

= [ 3.18 sq m. × 150/-]

= INR 477/-

The total labor cost of column

= cost of [ concreting + reinforcement + formwork]

= [165.60/- + 285.72/- + 477/-]

= INR 928.32/-

To go through rate analysis & cost-related articles, click here.

### What will be the cost of M20 grade concrete?/How to calculate the cost of concrete having a 1:1.5:3 mix ratio?

In this article, let us work out the cost of M20 grade concrete.

All the calculation part of the material required for concrete is covered in the separate article. So, before proceeding further, you have to go through that article ðŸ‘‡

Material estimation for M20 grade concrete./ Estimating cement, sand, & aggregates in 1 CUM. of 1:1.5:3 mix ratio (M20)concrete.

A.  Material cost:

The average ongoing market rate in India is considered for calculation purposes.

B.  Labor cost :

The labor rate for concrete ranges from INR 900/- to 1600/- per CUM.

Let us take the average rate of INR 1250/- for calculation purposes.

Now, let us calculate the cost of the M20 grade concrete per CUM in the table format.

 Sl. no. Item. Qty. Rate. in INR. Unit. Cost in INR. 1. Cement 8.06 380/- Bags 3062.80 2. Sand 14.832 60/- Cu ft 889.92 3. Aggregate 29.664 48/- Cu ft. 1423.87 4. Curing Lump-sum 250.00 5. Miscellaneous Lump-sum 150.00 6. The material cost = 5776.59 7. Add 5% wastage = 288.82 8. Total material cost = 6065.42 9. Labour cost = 1250.00 10. The total cost of M20 grade concrete/ CUM = 7315.42

Note:

1. The quantity of materials in the table is taken from the above-given article.

2. To get accurate results, insert the ongoing market rate of labor & materials in your country or region.

The cost of M20 grade concrete per cu ft.

= [INR 7315.42/- ÷ 35.314]

( 1CUM = 35.314 cu ft.)

INR 207.15/- per cu ft.

For contractor:

If the concrete work is handed over to any contractor, then you have to add 10% extra as his profit.

The cost of M20 grade concrete work done by a contractor

= [INR 7315.42/- + 10% of INR 7315.42/-]

= [INR 7315.42/- + INR 731.54/-]

= INR 8046.96/-  per CUM.

To go through rate analysis & cost-related articles, click here.

### What will be the construction cost of a RCC column?/ Calculating the cost of 10 ft. height RCC column.

Let us consider a column of size 230mm.× 300mm. having 3m. height as shown in the drawing.

Given data:

Column size = 230mm. × 300mm.= 0.23m. × 0.30m.

Height of the column = 3m.

Grade of concrete = M20.

A. Material cost

1. Concrete:

The volume of concrete in the column

= [ L × B × H]

= [0.23m. × 0.30m. × 3m.]

= 0.207 CUM.

Before proceeding further,  Go through the articleðŸ‘‡

ðŸ‘€. What will be the cost of M20 grade concrete ?/How to calculate the cost of concrete having a 1:1.5:3 mix ratio?

The material cost of M20 grade concrete = INR 6065.42/ CUM.

( M20 cost is taken from the above-mentioned article.)

The material cost of column concrete

= [vol. of concrete in CUM × rate/ CUM]

= [0.207 × 6065.42/-]

= INR 1255.54/-

2. Steel:

Let us consider the reinforcement in the column as shown in the below-given drawing.

Here, we are calculating the cost of steel for the 3m. (3000mm.) height of the column. i.e. from the plinth level to the bottom of the slab.

Given data:

Longitudinal bars ðŸ‘‰ 16mm. ∅ - 4 nos.

Lateral ties ðŸ‘‰  8mm. ∅ - 250mm. c/c.

Clear cover ðŸ‘‰  40mm.

Total no. of lateral ties

=[ {length of the longitudinal bar ÷ stirrup spacing} + 1]

= [{3000mm ÷ 250mm.}+ 1]

= [12 + 1]

= 13 nos.

Before proceeding further,  Go through the articleðŸ‘‡

ðŸ‘€.  Bar bending schedule ( BBS ) for columns.

Cutting length of a lateral tie = 0.852m.

( Cutting length is taken from the above-mentioned article.)

Now, let us prepare the BBS table for the column.

 Sl. No. Bar Dia. In mm. Nos. Length In m. Total length In m. Weight Kg/m. Total bar wt. In kg. 1. Longitudinal bar 16 4 3.0 12.0 1.58 18.96 2. Lateral ties 8 13 0.852 11.076 0.395 4.375 3. Total weight of bars = 23.34 4. Add 2% wastage = 0.47 5. The grand total wt. of rebar's = 23.81

The material cost of steel

= [total wt. in kgs. × steel rate/kg.]

= [23.81 kg. × 50/-]

= INR 1190.50/-

B. Labor cost:

The total labor cost of column = INR 928.32/-

The labor cost is taken from my article ðŸ‘‡

ðŸ‘€. How to calculate the labor cost for RCC columns?

Now, let us calculate the total cost of a column in the table format.

 Sl. no. Item. Description. Cost in INR. 1. Material cost 2. M20 concrete For 3m.  column 1255.54 3. Steel For 3m.  column 1190.50 4. Curing Lump-sum 50.00 5. Miscellaneous Lump-sum 100.00 6. The material cost = 2596.04 7. The  Labour cost= 928.32 8. The cost of column= 3524.36 9. Add 10% contractors profit = 352.44 10. The total cost of 3m. height column= 3876.80

Note:

1. To get accurate results, insert the ongoing market rate of labor & materials in your country.

2.  This article is to understand the column cost calculation procedure. In no way, the cost will be similar to the column of all sizes.

3. The cost of the column varies depending upon their size, location, concrete grade, %ge of reinforcement, etc.

To go through rate analysis & cost-related articles, click here.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day ðŸ˜„.

### What is a bottom door seal ? - Their application & different types.

#### ðŸ‘€.What is a door bottom seal?

Door seals are accessories, used to cover the openings at the bottom part of the door. They can be used for all types of doors to block unwanted bottom openings.

When the doors are hinged, a gap is provided from the floor level for the easy swing of the door. If the door lacks a threshold in its frame, you will find the openings at the bottom part, which is unavoidable.

So, to cover these openings without disturbing the operation of the door, we use a door seal as shown in the image below.

The bottom door seals are also known by the names bottom door sweeps or bottom door shoes.

#### ðŸ‘€.  Why do we need bottom door seals?

The door seals are needed

1. To prevent the entry of insects & cockroaches from the door bottom.

2. To block the breeze or cool air from entering the room.

3. To avoid the light from entering the building.

4. The door seal helps to block the sound from the adjacent room to a certain extent.

5. To block the wastage of energy from air-conditioned rooms.

#### ðŸ‘€. How to install door bottom seals?

For aluminum door sweeps:

1. The bottom width of the door is measured with a measuring tape.

2. The aluminum strip of the door seal is marked to the required door size & cut by using a hacksaw or cutter tool.

3. The vinyl sweep is cut to the size & slid into the aluminum strip.

4. The aluminum strip is screwed to the bottom door part so that the vinyl sweep touches the floor surface.

For adhesive door sweeps:

1. Instead of screwing, the self-adhesive strip of the door sweep is fixed to the door bottom.

2. Before installing, the door bottom surface should be cleaned or washed for good bonding.

For double draft & strip door seals:

1. They are fixed at the door bottom by sliding action without much effort.

All types of bottom door seals are DIY attachments, consuming lesser effort & time for installation.

#### ðŸ‘€. What are the different types of door bottom seals?

There are 5 types of bottom door seals.

1. Aluminum door sweeps:

a. Brush door sweep.

The aluminum plate or strip is attached with a nylon brush which can be easily detached by sliding. The brush sweeps & cleans the dust beneath the door. The brush also blocks the door bottom opening. The drawback of brush sweeps is they wear out over time & are not efficient when compared to flat door sweeps.

b. Flat door sweep.

Instead of a nylon brush, the aluminum plate is attached with a rubber base to seal the opening. They have a royal look when compared to the brush door sweep. Other than rubber, the base materials used are silicone & vinyl, having varied colors.

2. Adhesive door seal:

These types of door seals do not have separate aluminum strips to hold the sealing base. The door seal is stuck to the door bottom by self-adhesive strips.

3. Double draft seals:

The fabric sleeve holds the foam cylinder on both sides of the door. When the door is moved, they easily glide over all types of floor surfaces. These types of door seals also act as door stoppers.

4. Strip door seal:

All types of strip door seals work well for the smaller door bottom openings. If your door opening is above 6mm., then strip door seals are not a suitable choice. They are available in different shapes like L- shape, V-shape, & E-shape designs. This is the best-chosen option for the glass doors.

5. Weather stripping:

If you are thinking of sealing all your door & window gaps, then this will be the cheaper option. Weather-strips are available in larger-length rolls at a better price. You have to peel the back of the adhesive strip & stick it to the gap surface wherever necessary.

To go through all types of building materials used in construction, click here.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day ðŸ˜„.

### What will be the cost of M15 grade concrete ?/How to calculate the cost of concrete having a 1:2:4 mix ratio?

In this article, let us work out the cost of M15 grade concrete.

All the calculation part of the material required for concrete is covered in the separate article. So, before proceeding further, you have to go through that article ðŸ‘‡

Material estimation for M15 (1:2:4 mix ) grade concrete./Calculating the quantity of materials in 100 cu ft. & 1 cum. of M15 (1:2:4 ) grade concrete.

A.  Material cost:

The average ongoing market rate in India is considered for calculation purposes.

B.  Labor cost :

The labor rate for concrete ranges from INR 900/- to 1400/- per CUM.

Let us take the average rate of INR 1150/- for calculation purposes.

Now, let us calculate the cost of the M15 grade concrete per CUM in the table format.

 Sl. no. Item. Qty. Rate. in INR. Unit. Cost in INR. 1. Cement 6.336 380/- Bags 2407.68 2. Sand 15.54 60/- Cu ft 932.40 3. Aggregate 31.08 48/- Cu ft. 1491.84 4. Curing Lump-sum 250.00 5. Miscellaneous Lump-sum 150.00 6. The material cost = 5231.92 7. Add 5% wastage = 261.60 8. Total material cost = 5493.52 9. Labour cost = 1150.00 10. The total cost of M15 grade concrete/ CUM = 6643.52

Note:

1. The quantity of materials in the table is taken from the above-said article.

2. To get accurate results, insert the ongoing market rate of labor & materials in your country.

The cost of M15 grade concrete per cu ft.

= [INR 6643.52/- ÷ 35.314]

( 1CUM = 35.314 cu ft.)

INR 188.123/- per cu ft.

For contractor:

If the concrete work is handed over to any contractor, then you have to add 10% extra as profit.

The cost of M15 grade concrete done by a contractor

= [INR 6643.52/- + 10% of INR 6643.52/-]

= [INR 6643.52/- + INR 664.35/-]

= INR 7307.87/-  per CUM.

To go through rate analysis & cost-related articles, click here.

### 13 points to consider while fixing aluminum windows./ Checklist for fixing of an aluminum window./ Installation procedure of aluminum windows.

Following are the 13 points that should be checked for the fixing of aluminum window frames.

1. Size:

The length & breadth of the window opening should be checked to select the proper type of frames.

The building contains window openings having different dimensions. So, measure the size of the openings beforehand to cut & place the aluminum frames accordingly.

2. Diagonal:

The diagonal of the window opening should be checked before cutting the aluminum frames. If the opening is not accurate, you cannot screw the aluminum frames to the wall. If the difference is within 2 to 3mm., we can make up those errors by gap filling.

3. Track:

Ensure the number of tracks in advance before the installation of the aluminum window. You should be confirmed if any track contains mosquito mesh instead of glass.

4. Material quality:

You have to ensure the quality of aluminum materials in advance. They should be free of cracks, dents, burrs, etc. over the surface. The aluminum should have smooth finishing with a uniform leveled surface.

5. Rubber packing:

All the rubber packing materials should be in good condition without any cuts or dents.

6. Glass:

The thickness of the glass should be checked before installation. The type of glass should be known before cutting & fixing them in the aluminum frame.

7. Position:

You should measure the distance of the frame from all the corners of the wall surface. Suppose, if the window is 15mm. within the openings, the window should be positioned accordingly.

If the frame needs to be flushed to the wall surface, you have to observe the same for its accuracy.

8. Leveling:

Once brought to its position, the frame should be leveled by using a spirit level. The upper & lower part of the window should be in perfect leveled condition.

9. Plumb:

The verticality of the aluminum frame is set by using the plumb bob & spirit level. The plumbing should be checked for both sides of the frame.

10. Screwing:

You have to ensure that all the sides of the frame are properly screwed into the wall having a firm grip. The aluminum frame should not move at any angle when you twist them with your hand.

11. Gap-filling:

After fixing the window, the minute gaps should be filled with the specified sealants from all sides. This prevents the entry of water in the rainy season.

12. Locking system:

You have to check for the smooth working of the locking system. All the handles should be checked for their proper screwing & correct position.

13. Operation:

The track should be moved to & fro several times to check for its smooth movement without any hurdles. The roller should be held firmly over the tracks. You should not feel any looseness in them.

If you find the movement is not appropriate, rectify them for its easy operation.

ðŸ‘€  To go through all types of construction-related procedures & checklistsclick here.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day ðŸ˜„.

### What will be the cost of M25 grade concrete ?/How to calculate the cost of concrete having a 1:1:2 mix ratio?

In this article, let us work out the cost of M25 grade concrete.

All the calculation part of the material required for concrete is covered in the separate article. So, before proceeding further, you have to go through that article ðŸ‘‡

Material estimation for M25 grade concrete. / Estimation of cement, sand, & aggregates in M25 ( 1:1:2 mix ratio) concrete.

A.  Material cost:

The average ongoing market rate in India is considered for calculation purposes.

B.  Labor cost :

The labor rate for concrete ranges from INR 1000/- to 1600/- per CUM.

Let us take the average rate of INR 1300/- for calculation purposes.

Now, let us calculate the cost of the M25 grade concrete per CUM in the table format.

 Sl. no. Item. Qty. Rate. in INR. Unit. Cost in INR. 1. Cement 11.089 380/- Bags 4213.82 2. Sand 13.60 60/- Cu ft 816.00 3. Aggregate 27.19 48/- Cu ft. 1305.12 4. Curing Lump-sum 250.00 5. Miscellaneous Lump-sum 150.00 6. The material cost = 6734.94 7. Add 5% wastage = 336.75 8. Total material cost = 7071.69 9. Labour cost = 1300.00 10. The total cost of M25 grade concrete/ CUM = 8371.69

Note:

1. The quantity of materials in the table is taken from the above-said article.

2. To get accurate results, insert the ongoing market rate of labor & materials in your country.

The cost of M25 grade concrete per cu ft.

= [INR 8371.69/- ÷ 35.314]

( 1CUM = 35.314 cu ft.)

INR 237.06/- per cu ft.

For contractor:

If the concrete work is handed over to any contractor, then you have to add 10% extra as profit.

The cost of M25 grade concrete done by a contractor

= [INR 8371.69/- + 10% of INR 8371.69/-]

= [INR 8371.69/- + INR 837.17/-]

= INR 9208.86/-  per CUM.

To go through rate analysis & cost-related articles, click here.