All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

What is the difference between emulsion paint & oil paint?/19 differences between emulsion paint & oil based paint./Emulsion paint Vs. oil based paint./ Comparing emulsion paint with oil based paint.

 Now, let us observe the difference between emulsion paint & oil-based paint in a table format.



Sl. no.

              Description

Emulsion paint

Oil based paint

1.

Composition

25% pigment, 45% solvent, 25% binders, 5% other additives.

Oil, solvents, drier, filler, oxide pigments.

2.

Average Price

INR 1.25X/-

INR X/-

3.

Coverage area for 1 litre.

120 to 160 sq ft.( 2 coat)

100 - 130 sq ft.( 2 coat)

4.

Application

Interior, ceiling,

exterior, concrete.

Interior, ceiling, metal &

Wooden surfaces.

5.

In wet areas

Do not peel off from wall.

May peel off.

6.

Available packs

1litr, 4ltr, 10litr, 20litr, 40litr.

100ml, 200ml.,500ml., 1litr, 4litr, 10litr,  20litr.

7.

Drying time.

Fast

Slow

8.

Preparation

To be prepared by

adding water.

Ready to use. You can add thinners if required.

9.

Final finishing

Matt, smooth, semi glossy, satin, egg-shell.

Smooth, glossy, metallic, reflective sheen.

10.

Thinner

Not required

Turpentine, white spirit, naphtha, etc. are used as thinner.

11.

Durability

More

Medium

12.

Flammable

No.

Yes.

13.

Binder used in paints.

Alkyd resins, acrylic resins, epoxy,  etc.

Linseed oil, Tung oil, poppy oil, etc.

14.

Toxicity

Comparatively less

Comparatively more.

15.

Odour

Weak odour

Strong odour.

16.

Are they washable

Easily washable

Washable.

17.

Temp. resistance.

Does not develop crack due to variation in temp.

May develop cracks.

18.

VOC content

20 - 27 gm/lit.

100- 300 gm. /lit.

19.

Flexibility

More.

Less.

 

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How to design a square water tank?/ How to calculate the dimensions of square water tank?

 Let us design a square water tank for a factory building having 25 workers as shown below.




According to BIS standard IS 1172-1993,  the average water consumption per head for a factory having bathrooms are ( India ) 45 liters/ day.




The volume of water required ( in liters ) per day for 25 workers

   = [ per capita consumption /day × no. of workers.]

   = [ 45 liters × 25 nos.]

   = 1125 liters.


Now, let us build a water tank having 2ft. depth as shown below.




Given data:

Depth D = 2 ft.

As we are constructing a square tank, the length will be equal to breadth.

i.e. L = B


A. Method - 1:

As you know, 

Volume of water tank

V1 = [ length (L) × breadth (B) × depth ( D ) ]

      = [ L × B × 2 ft. ]

Here, the volume of the water tank is equal to the vol. of water consumed/day. Let us add 15% extra in the tank volume for the sump & emergency needs.

So, the required volume ( V ) 

 = [water consumption/day + 15% of daily consumption]

 = [ 1125 liters + {( 15 ÷ 100) × 1125 liters}]

= [ 1125 liters. + 168.75 liters ]

1293.75 liters.


As you know, 

  1 cu ft. = 28.3168 liters

  So, the vol. V of the water tank in cu ft.

   = [ 1293.75 ÷ 28.3168 ] cu ft.

   = 45.688 cu ft.


Now,    

   V =  [( L × B) × 2 ft. ]

 45.688 cu ft. = [ ( L × L )× 2 ft. ]

By cross multiplication,

    ( L × L ) = [45.688 cu ft. ÷ 2 ft.]

          L2    = 22.844 sq ft.

              L = √22.844

                 = 4.779 ft.


The dimension of the water tank for holding water/ day

     = L × B × H 

     = 4.779 ft. × 4.779 ft. × 2 ft.



Note :

If you want to store the water for the 2days requirement, then you have to double the value of  L2  or recalculate for the 2 days water consumption.

For Eg., Let us take 2 times the  L2   to double the vol. of the tank.

 L2    = 22.844 sq ft. { as calculated}

Making  L2  into 2 times

            L2   = [2 × 22.844]

                   = 45.688 sq ft. 

            L    =  √45.688

                   = 6.759 ft.


Now, the vol. of a square tank

               = L × B × H 

               = [ 6.759 ft. × 6.759 ft. × 2 ft.]

              = 91.36 cu ft. ( i.e. double the capacity of 45.688 cu ft.)


B. Method-2:

Let us assume the ideal required dimensions of the square tank is as shown in the drawing.


Given data:


   Depth = D ft.

As we are constructing a square tank, the length will be equal to breadth.

i.e. L = B

Length L = breadth B = 2 × depth = 2D

  The required vol. of water tank 

    = 45.688 cu ft. (as calculated above. )


Now,

                 V =  [ L × B × D]

   45.688 cu ft. = [ ( 2D ) × ( 2D) × D ]

  45.688 cu ft. = [ 4 × D3  ]

    D3

        = [45.688 cu ft. ÷ 4]
        
        = 11.422 cu ft.

   D = [∛  11.422 cu ft.]

       = 2.252 ft.


  Length = 2D = [2 × 2.252 ft.]

                        = 4.504 ft.


Breadth = length = 4.504 ft.

The dimension of the square water tank for holding water/ day

  = L × B × H 




     = 4.504 ft. × 4.504ft. × 2.252 ft.


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How to design a circular water tank?/ How to calculate the dimensions of circular water tank?

 Let us design a circular water tank for a hostel of  30 persons as shown below.



According to BIS standard IS 1172-1993,  the average water consumption per head for hostels in India is 135 liters./day




The volume of water required ( in liters ) per day for 30 persons

   = [ per capita consumption /day × no. of persons.]

   = [ 135 liters × 30 nos.]

   = 4050 liters.


Now, let us build a water tank having 2m. height as shown below.



A. Method - 1:

As you know, 

The volume of the water tank

V1 = [π ×( D2÷4) ×H ]

      = [ 3.142 ×( D2÷4)  × 2m. ]

Here, the volume of the water tank is equal to the vol. of water consumed /day. Let us add 15% extra in the tank volume for the sump & emergency needs.

So, the required volume ( V ) 

 = [water consumption/day + 15% of daily consumption]

 = [ 4050 liters + {( 15 ÷ 100) × 4050 liters}]

= [ 4050 liters. + 607.5 liters ]

4657.50 liters.


As you know, 

  1 cu m. = 1000 liters

  So, the vol. V of the water tank in cu m.

   = [ 4657.50 ÷ 1000 ] cu m.

   = 4.658 cu m.


Now,    

           V =   [π ×( D2÷4) ×H ]

     4.658cu m. = [ 3.142 ×( D2÷4)  × 2m. ]

  4.658cu m. = [ 6.284m ×( D2÷4) ]

   4.658cu m. = [ 1.571m. × D2 ]


By cross multiplication,

D2 = [4.658 cu m. ÷ 1.571m.]

              = 2.965 sq m.

  D = √2.965

      = 1.722m.




The inner diameter of the circular water tank should be 1.722m.


Note :

If you want to store the water for the 2days requirement, then you have to double the water tank vol. for the calculation purpose.

For Eg., Let us take 2V instead of V in the calculation.

 2V =   [π ×( D2÷4) ×H ]

   [2 × 4.658cu m.] = [ 3.142 ×( D2÷4)  × 2m. ]

  9.316 cu m. = [ 6.284m ×( D2÷4) ]

   9.316 cu m. = [ 1.571m. × D2 ]


By cross multiplication,

D2 = [9.316 cu m. ÷ 1.571m.]

              = 5.93 sq m.

  D = √5.93

      = 2.435 m.

The inner diameter of the circular water tank should be 2.435m.


B. Method-2:

Let us assume the ideal required dimensions of the tank is as shown in the drawing.



Given data:


   Inner Diameter = D.

   Inner height H =  1.5 × diameter = 1.5D


The required vol. of water tank 

    = 4.658 cum. (as calculated above. )

Now,

 V =   [π ×( D2÷4) ×H ]

     4.658cu m. = [ 3.142 ×( D2÷4)  × 1.5D. ]

     4.658cu m. = [ 4.713D ×( D2÷4) ]

     4.658cu m. = [ 1.178 × D3 ]


By cross multiplication,

D3 = [4.658 cu m. ÷ 1.178]

              = 3.954 cum.


  D = [∛ 3.954 cum.]

      = 1.581m.


Height H = 1.5D

                = [1.5  × 1.581]

                = 2.372m.

The dimension of the circular water tank will be as shown in the below drawing.



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How to design a rectangular water tank?/ How to calculate the dimensions of water tank?

  Let us design a rectangular water tank for a family of  5 persons as shown below.



According to BIS standard IS 1172-1993,  the average water consumption per capita (LIG) in India is 135 liters/ day.



 The volume of water required ( in liters ) per day for 5 persons

   = [ per capita consumption /day × no. of persons.]

   = [ 135 liters × 5 nos.]

   = 675 liters.


Now, let us build a water tank having 3ft. depth as shown below.



A. Method - 1:

As you know, 

Volume of water tank

V1 = [ length (L) × breadth (B) × Depth ( D ) ]

   = [ L × B × 3 ft. ]

Here, the volume of the water tank is equal to the vol. of water consumed/day. Let us add 15% extra in the tank volume for the sump & emergency needs.

So, the required volume ( V ) 

 = [water consumption/day + 15% of daily consumption]

 = [ 675 liters + {( 15 ÷ 100) × 675 liters}]

= [ 675 liters. + 101.25 liters ]

= 776.25 liters.


As you know, 

  1 cu ft. = 28.3168 liters

  So, the vol. V of the water tank in cu ft.

   = [ 776. 25 ÷ 28.3168 ] cu ft.

   = 27.41 cu ft.


Now,    

   V =  [( L × B) × 3 ft. ]

 27.41cu ft. = [ (L × B )× 3 ft. ]

By cross multiplication,

(L × B ) = [27.41 cu ft. ÷ 3 ft.]

              = 9.14 sq ft.

You can choose any one of the lengths ( L ) or breadth ( B ), according to the available space for the tank construction.

Suppose if the ideal required length L= 4ft. then,

   (L × B ) = 9.14 sq. ft.

 ( 4ft.× B ) = 9.14 sq. ft.

 B = [9.14 sq. ft. ÷ 4 ft. ]

    = 2.285 ft.


The dimension of the water tank for holding water/ day

= L × B × H 




   = 4ft. × 2.285 ft. × 3ft.

   = 27.42 cu ft.

Note :

If you want to store the water for the 2days requirement, then you have to double any one dimension or recalculate for the 2 days water consumption.

For Eg., Let us take 2 times the breadth to double the vol. of the tank

 = [L × ( 2 × B) × D ]

 = [4ft. × (2 × 2.285 ft.) × 3 ft.]

= [ 4ft. × 4.57 ft. × 3 ft.]

= 54.84 cu ft. ( double the vol. of 27.42 cu ft.)


B. Method-2:

Let us assume the ideal required dimensions of the tank is as shown in the drawing.



Given data:

   Depth = D ft.

   Length L =  2 × depth = 2D

   Breadth B = 1.5 × depth = 1.5D


The required vol. of water tank 

    = 27.41 cu ft. (as calculated above. )

Now,

                 V =  [ L × B × D]

  27.41 cu ft. = [ ( 2D ) × ( 1.5D) × D ]

  27.41 cu ft. = [ 3 × D3  ]

    D3

        = [27.41 cu ft. ÷ 3]
        
        = 9.136 cu ft.

   D = [∛  9.136 cu ft.]

      = 2.09 ft.


Length = 2D = [2 × 2.09 ft.]

                     = 4.18 ft.


Breadth = 1.5D = [ 1.5 × 2.09 ft]

                         = 3.135 ft.


The dimension of the water tank for holding water/ day

  = L × B × H 





    = 4.18 ft. × 3.135 ft. × 2.09 ft.


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22 differences between acrylic wall putty & cement putty./White cement putty Vs. acrylic wall putty./ Comparing cement putty with acrylic putty.

 Now, let us observe the difference between white cement putty & acrylic putty in a table format.





Sl. no.

              Description

White cement putty

Acrylic putty

1.

Raw material

White cement

+polymers + minerals

Acrylic emulsion + pigments+ additives

+ fillers.

2.

Price

INR X/-

INR 1.5X to 2X/-

3.

Coverage area for 1 kg.

10 to 15 sq ft.( 2 coat)

25 - 33 sq ft.( 2 coat)

4.

Application

Interior, ceiling  &

Exterior of building

Interior, ceiling, &

Wooden surfaces.

5.

Available form

Powder

Paste

6.

Can be applied on damp surface

Yes

No

7.

Setting time.

6 to 8 hours

4 to 6 hours

8.

Preparation

To be prepared by

Adding water

Ready to use

9.

Final finishing

Good

Very good having a

 fine finish.

10.

Flexural & tensile strength

High

Comparatively low

11.

Durability

More

Medium

12.

Binding Strength

High  strength.

Comparatively low strength.

13.

Appearance

Medium

Luxury look.

14.

Recommended for luxury paints

No

Yes

15.

Resistance to water seepage

Yes

No

16.

Need curing.

No

No

17.

Finishing type

Smooth & matt

Smooth & glossy

18.

VOC content

No

Yes. Theoretical 25gm/lit

19.

Shelf life

6 months

1 year

20.

Application thickness

1.5 mm - 2 mm.

Up to 1.5 mm.

21.

Is primer coat required?

No

Yes.

22.

Is punning required?

Optional

Yes.

 

For you 👇

❤. What is wall putty in construction?- Advantages , disadvantages & different types.

❤. What is the difference between gypsum & POP?.- Their manufacturing process &  different uses.


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