All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

Cost calculator for different grades of concrete./ Material & cost calculator for concrete./Volume & weight calculator for concrete.

 Note:

 1. Insert the dimensions of concrete & select the grade of concrete to get the material requirements.

 2. Insert the ongoing market rate of material & labor in the calculator to get the concrete cost. 




To know the calculation procedure,  Go through the article 👇

👀.  Material estimation for M25 grade concrete.


The concrete calculator for the MKS  FPS system is given separately. Calculate according to your requirements.






Note: 

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

For more such calculators, click 👇

Instant calculators.


Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day 😄.

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Concrete calculator for slab./ Calculator for RCC slab./Material calculator for concrete slab.

 


To know the calculation procedure,  Go through the article 👇

👀.  Material estimation for M25 grade concrete.


The concrete slab calculator for the MKS  FPS system is given separately. Calculate according to your requirements.






Note: 

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

For more such calculators, click 👇

Instant calculators.


Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day 😄.

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Calculator for wall putty./ Cost & material calculator for wall putty.

 Note:

1. If there are any deductions in doors or window openings, enter the deduction area & if there are no deductions, keep the value as 0.

2. Enter the coverage area of wall putty as specified by the particular brand in your country.

3. Enter all the ongoing market rates in your region to get the correct results.




To know the calculation procedure,  Go through the article 👇

👀.  How to calculate the cost of wall putty per sq. ft.?


The wall putty calculator for the MKS  FPS system is given separately. Calculate according to your requirements.



Note: 

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

For more such calculators, click 👇

Instant calculators.


Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day 😄.


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Weight calculator for round steel pipes./MS hollow circular section weight calculator./ Hollow steel section weight calculator.

  Weight calculator for round steel pipe:




To know the calculation procedure,  Go through the article 👇

👀. How to calculate the weight of hollow circular steel pipes?


The circular pipe calculator for the MKS  FPS system is given separately. Calculate according to your requirements.




Note: 

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

For more such calculators, click 👇

Instant calculators.


Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day 😄.

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Brick calculator./ Calculator for estimating bricks & mortar./Calculator for brick wall masonry.

  Note:

1. The std. mortar thickness of 10mm. (0.394") is adopted in the calculation.





To know the calculation procedure,  Go through the article 👇

👀.  How to calculate the materials required for modular brickworks?


The brick calculator for the MKS  FPS system is given separately. Calculate according to your requirements.


Note: 

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

For more such calculators, click 👇

Instant calculators.


Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day 😄.

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Concrete block calculator./ Calculator for estimating concrete blocks & mortar.

  Note:

1. The thickness of the wall will be selected automatically when you pick the block size from the list.

2. The std. mortar thickness of 10mm. (0.394") is adopted in the calculation.


To know the calculation procedure,  Go through the article 👇

👀. Block, cement & sand calculations for a wall masonry.




The concrete block calculator for the MKS  FPS system is given separately. Calculate according to your requirements.



Note: 

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

For more such calculators click 👇

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Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day 😄.

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Calculator for cement plaster./Cement & sand calculator for plastering./ Cement plaster material calculator./Calculator for estimating material volume in cement plaster.

 


 To know the calculation procedure,  Go through the article 👇

👀.  Estimating the volume of cement & sand in plasterwork.


The plaster calculator for the MKS  FPS system is given separately. Calculate according to your requirements.


Note: 

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day 😄.

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Area calculator for a land having 5 unequal sides./ Area calculator for irregular 5 side land.

 Note:

1. The calculator should be used for irregular land having 5 unequal sides.

2. You should enter the measurement of sides & diagonals as exactly shown in the below drawing.

The calculator finds the area of  3 triangles ABD, BCD, & DEA separately & adds them together. So, interchanging the value of sides gives you the wrong results.

You can take any 2 diagonal measurements. But make sure to form 3 triangles ABD, BCD, & DEA, as shown below.

If you are unaware of the calculation procedure, first, you should Go through the article 👇

👀. Area calculation for the irregular pentagon-shaped land.


3. The sides F & G (diagonal) should be measured directly on land, if not known.

4. You should enter the values in meters or in feet only.


Type - 5:

Here, all 5 sides of the land are unequal in length & are not parallel to each other.




The area calculator for the MKS system & FPS system is given separately. Calculate according to your requirements.


Note: 

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day 😄.




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Irregular land or plot area calculator./ Area calculator for land having non-parallel sides./Irregular shape calculator.

 Note:

1. The calculator should be used when all the 4 sides of land are unequal in length & are not parallel to each other.

2. You can enter the measurement of sides A, B, C, & D in clockwise or anticlockwise directions. But, the diagonal E should be entered as shown in the below drawing.

3. The side E (diagonal) should be measured directly on land, if not known.

4. You can enter the values in meters or in feet only.


Type 4:

 All four sides of the land are unequal in length and are not parallel to each other.





The area calculator for the MKS  FPS system is given separately. Calculate according to your requirements.




Note: 

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day 😄.


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Area calculator for irregular-shaped land./ Area calculator for odd size plots or land.

 Note:

1. The calculator should be used only when the two sides of the land are parallel to each other.

2.  The perpendicular distance between the two parallel sides, i.e. h can be measured directly on land, if not known.

3. The formula to calculate the area of type-1 & type-2 are the same. So, you can use the below-given calculator for both types of land.

Type 1 :

 Two sides AD & BC are parallel to each other and all 4 sides have different lengths.


Type 2:

 Two sides AD & BC are parallel to each other & side DC is perpendicular to these two parallel sides.



The area calculator for the MKS system & FPS system is given separately. Calculate according to your requirements.






Note: 

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

For more such calculators click 👇

Instant calculators.


Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day 😄.



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Weight calculator for square & rectangular steel pipes./MS square & rectangular section weight calculator./ Hollow steel section weight calculator.

 1. Weight calculator for hollow rectangular steel section:




Note: 

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.


 2. Weight calculator for hollow square steel section:





Note: 

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

For more such calculators, click 👇

Instant calculators.


Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day 😄.



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MS sheet weight calculator./ Weight calculator for steel sheets in kilograms & pounds.

MS sheet weight calculator for MKS system & FPS system are given separately. Calculate according to your requirements.





1.  MS sheet weight calculation for measurements in mm. 


Formula used:

MS sheet wt. =[ L x  W x t x 𝝔]

Where,

L = Length of the MS sheet in mm.

W = Width of MS sheet in mm.

T = Thickness of  MS sheet in mm.

 𝝔 = Density of steel = 7850  x 10⁻⁹ kg./mm³


2. MS sheet weight calculation for measurement in inches.


Formula used:

MS sheet wt. = [L x  W x t x 𝝔]

Where,

L = Length of the MS sheet in inches.

W = Width of MS sheet in inches.

T = Thickness of  MS sheet in inches.

 𝝔 = Density of steel = 0.2836 lb./in³


Note: 

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

For more such calculators, click 👇

Instant calculators.


Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day 😄

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Estimating excavation & dumping cost by using JCB & tipper truck.

 Let us calculate the cost of excavation & dumping at the construction site as shown below.



Given data:

Length of excavation = 50m.

Depth of excavation = 1.5m.

Width of excavation  = 6m.

Dumping distance = 1.5km.


Calculation:

Let us use JCB-3DX for the excavation purpose & tipper truck of 10m³ capacity.


1. Excavation cost:

The volume of the excavation

= [length × breadth  × depth]

= [ 50m. × 6m. × 1.5m.]

= 450m³.

The market rate for the JCB excavation is INR 900/-  to INR 1200/- per hour., depending upon the regional availability & demand.

Let us consider an average rate of INR 1050/- per hour, for the calculation purpose.

The excavation capacity of the JCB ranges from 30m³ to 50m³ per hour, depending upon the type of soil.

Let us consider an average excavation capacity of 40m³/ hour for the calculation.


The cost of excavation 

= [(Total vol. of excavation ÷ excavation capacity/hr. ) × JCB rate/hr.]

= [(450m³ ÷ 40m³/ hour ) × INR 1050/-]

=[11.25hour × 1050/hour ]

INR 11,812/-  


2. Dumping cost:

The distance of the filling area is 1.5km. from the excavated site.

The total distance traveled by a tipper truck 

= up & down of 1.5km. = [2 × 1.5km.] =3km.


The tipper truck nearly takes 15min.(0.25hr.) to travel the distance of  3km.

The excavated volume by JCB = 40m³/ hour 

Therefore no. of trucks needed/hr. 

= [excavated vol./hr. ÷ tipper capacity]

= [ 40m³  ÷ 10m³]

= 4 nos.

 JCB takes 15min. ( 0.25hr.) to load one truck of  10m³ capacity.

So, the total time consumed by a tipper/trip

= [loading time + traveling time]

= [0.25hr. + 0.25hr.] 

 = 0.50hr.

This suggests taking 2no. of trucks without keeping the JCB in idle position.

The market rate for the tipper truck is INR 300/-  to INR 500/- per trip, depending upon the regional availability & demand.

Let us consider an average rate of  INR 400/- for the calculation purpose.

Note: 

The tipper rate/trip depends upon the distance traveled. The above-mentioned rate is for the distance within 2km. 

The cost of  dumping 

 = [(Total vol. of excavation ÷ tipper capacity )× soil bulking factor × tipper rate/ trip]

 = [(450m³ ÷ 10m³ ) ×1.15 × INR 400/-]

 =[45 trips × 1.15 × INR 400/- ]

 = INR 20,700/-  


Note: 
The bulking factor is the percentage of volume change of excavated material (due to expansion) to the original volume before excavation. 
The bulking factor differs from soil to soil & degree of compaction. However, for the calculation purpose, an average bulking factor i.e. 1.15 is considered.

The total cost of excavation & filling

= [excavation cost + dumping cost]

= [ 11,812/- + 20,700/-]

= INR 32,512/-


Note

Insert the market rate of your region in the above procedure to estimate the correct cost.


Thank you for going through these calculation steps. Have a good day 😄.


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Column casting before brick masonry or after? (Part-2)/ Pros & cons of framed structure.

 Part -1   👈 Back   

Let us go through the pros & cons of constructing the column before the brick masonry.




Advantages:

1. The dimensions of the column are accurate as formworks are used on all sides.

2. Slurry leakage at the joints can be avoided.

3. No water absorption & hence strength is maintained.

4.  You can achieve the required verticality of the column  & its designated position. 

5. You can provide proper cover for the reinforcement.


Disadvantages:

1. The bond between the brick masonry & column concrete is weak when compared to confined masonry.

2. The shuttering on all the sides adds extra cost to your budget.

3. Hacking is a must on the surface of the column that joins with the brick wall.


If you want to know the procedure & specification of hacking, Go through the article 👇

👀. What is hacking in civil construction?- Purpose & technical specification of hacking.


4. You have to use chicken mesh to avoid cracks at the time of plastering.

5. Construction cost increases due to extra shuttering work, chicken mesh, bonding agents, hacking work, etc.


My suggestion:

If you want quality work & are ready to add 3 to 4% extra to the construction cost, go through the following procedure.

1. Cast all the columns up to the base of the sill level. The standard height of the sill is 0.9m. (3' ).

2. After hacking & necessary curing, brick masonry should be built up to the base of the sill level. Use bonding agents over the column surface to gain extra grip with masonry.

 3. Provide an RCC band up to the sill level over the brick masonry. The reinforcement provided in the band should pass through the columns. This RCC band should be run over all the brick masonry throughout the building. 




4. Now, concrete the column up to the base of the lintel level. The standard height of the lintel is 2.1m. ( 7').

5. Again, build the brick masonry up to the level of the lintel base as you did earlier. 

6. Lintel of the required specification with necessary sunshades & projections should be cast.



7. The column should be cast up to the beam's bottom level.

8. The brick wall should be constructed up to the level of the beam bottom.

9. After the completion of the curing period, start the centering work of the slab.

Here, the beam does not need formwork at the bottom. While casting the beam, wetting & adding cement slurry over the masonry surface is a must.


Note:

The above-mentioned procedure is for ground & G +1 type of residential buildings. For multi-storeyed buildings, frames are the priority member followed by the masonry works.


Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.








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First column or brickwork- which is correct in the construction? (Part-1) /Column casting before brick masonry or after?/Confined masonry structure.

 Let us discuss one of the FAQs -  Column first or brickwork -which is correct in the construction? 

OK. You might be knowing that we divide the structural construction as

1. Load bearing structure &

2. Framed structure.

In load-bearing structures obliviously you build the brick walls first to take loads of slabs.

The question arises in framed structures where some contractors build the wall first followed by the column casting or vice versa.

Since the olden days, columns were cast after completing the brickworks to have a good bond between the two structures. This practice was followed in seismic zones to resist the effect of earthquakes on the buildings. 

This type of construction is known as confined masonry structures. 





Now the question that comes to your mind is

Shall we go for the confined masonry structures for good building strength?

Let us observe the advantages & disadvantages of a confined structure to get a clear picture.


Advantages:

1. Provides a good bond between the masonry & RCC structures.

2. Cracks at the junctions & joints of masonry & RCC members are reduced due to the bondage.

3. Minimizes the use of formwork materials & hence saves in your budget.

4. No need to use bonding agents & chicken mesh at the joints & junctions.

5. Provides protection against earthquakes to a certain extent.

6. The external & internal surface of the column falls in alignment with the masonry walls. 

7. No offsets at the junctions & joints.


  Disadvantages:

1. Brick masonry absorbs the water from the poured concrete & thus reduces the column strength.

2. Gaps in between the brick masonry layers become the exit point for the cement slurry while casting.

3. The clear cover for the column reinforcement may get disturbed due to the protruded brick edges within the column.





4. The verticality of the column depends upon the constructed masonry walls. 

5. The original size of the column may get altered as it depends upon the width of the wall.


So, what next?

Certainly, we can reduce the disadvantages by following good constructional practices. Some of the rules or methods to be followed are,

1. Any protruded brick edges should be chipped off so that the dimension of the column is kept intact.

2.  The concrete cover should be placed within the reinforcement before the shuttering works as per the specification. This ensures a clear cover on all four sides of the column. 



3. The brick wall should be wetted with water, prior to the concreting work. All the brick surfaces that come in contact with concrete should be allowed to absorb water. 

4. The cement slurry of the required consistency should be sprayed or splashed over the inner brick surfaces before the casting work.

5. The openings at the bricklayer edges should be smeared with wet clay soils. Applying the clay soil at the formwork & brick wall junctions prevents the oozing of cement slurry up to a certain extent.




6. If the brick wall is not in the vertical plane, plastering at the brick edges should be done by using a plumb bob. This helps the casted column to be on the vertical axis.


Note:

A confined masonry structure can be built for ground & G +1 residential buildings. For multi-storeyed buildings, frames are the priority member followed by the masonry works.

      Continued 👉 Part-2


Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.









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How to calculate the size of the columns? / How to find the dimensions of the columns

 Let us find out the size of the column for a total load acting over it. Let us consider the total axial load over the column as 1650KN.


Given data:

Total load over the column = 1650KN. = 1650 x 10³N


To find:

Column size =  L x B =?


Calculation:




Factored load = Pu = [1.5 x 1650KN]

                          Pu = 2475KN. =2475 x 10³N

Let us use M30 grade concrete & Fe415 steel in this column.

As per IS code

Pu = [0.4 x fck x Ac + 0.67 x fy x Asc]

Where,

Pu = Ultimate load considered = 2475 x 10³N

fck = Characteristic compressive strength of concrete = 30 N/mm²

fy = Yield strength of steel = 415 N/mm²

Ac = Sectional area of concrete =?

Asc = Sectional area of steel

Let us provide 1.5% of steel (Asc ) in the column

which means Asc = 1.5% of Ac. = 0.015Ac


   Pu = [0.4 x fck x Ac + 0.67 x fy x Asc]

  2475 x 10³N = [(0.4 x 30 x Ac )+ (0.67 x 415 x 0.015Ac) ]

  2475 x 10³N = [12 Ac + 4.171Ac ]

   2475 x 10³N = [16.171 Ac ]

Ac =  2475 x 10³N 16.171 N/mm²

      = 153.05  x 10³ mm²

      = 1,53,051mm²


1. Square column:

If we go for a square column

Length( L) = breadth ( B )

Sectional area of the column

Ac = [ L x B ]= L²

L² = 153051mm²

L = √ 153051

   = 391.21mm.

The size of the column will be 391.21mm. x 391.21mm.

By rounding off, let us provide a column of size 400mm. x 400mm.



2. Rectangular column:

Practically,  in residential buildings, we take the breadth of the columns as 225mm. ( 9" ) to match the width of the wall.

Therefore,

[L x B] = 153051mm²

[L x 225mm.] = 153051mm²

L = [153051mm² 225mm.]

   = 680.2mm.

The size of the rectangular column = 225mm. x 680mm.




OR

 If we provide a column having a width of 300mm.(12")

L = [153051mm² ➗ 300mm.] 

    = 510mm.

The column size = 300mm. x 510mm.

I hope you understood the concept.


Note: 

1. This calculation method can be used for general residential buildings. 

2. Multi-storeyed building involves several design criteria to calculate the dimensions.


Thank you for going through these calculation steps. Have a good day 😄.

   





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