All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

Types of doors in the building construction.

The different types of doors based on the materials used in its production process are,



1. Wooden door.



wooden door.

This is the most common type of door used all over the world due to the easy availability of the raw material (wood ) and any local carpenter can make this job for you. This type of door can be carved with any sculpture or design of your choice as shown in the fig.


2. Flush door.


Flush door.

In flush doors, plywood sheets or veneer is pressed under high pressure on both the side of the door. The core portion consists of strips or pieces of wood glued together with one another having no voids left in between them.


3. FRP door.


FRP door.

Fiber-reinforced plastic ( FRP ) is a composite material having fiberglass (usually ) as a reinforcement material. They are waterproof doors with the anti-rust and anti-corrosive properties. These doors are available in a variety of designs and colors.


4. Aluminum door.


Aluminum door.

The outer and inner frames are made of aluminum which holds the glass or any other sheets made of different materials to form the whole door. Aluminum is a lightweight material with good structural strength which helps to produce the doors with the thinner sections having less weight. Aluminum doors can either be side hung or sliding-type in its operation. You can find such type of doors more commonly used in the public and commercial buildings.


5. Glass door.

Glass door.

This door is very useful when you need a transparent view of the other side of the room. But you have to handle them very carefully as they get cracks or breaks easily by any impact loads.


6. PVC door.


PVC door.

Polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ) is a type of polymer plastic that is used in making a wide range of building materials. They are lightweight materials having anti-rust, anti-termite, and waterproof characters.


7. UPVC door.


UPVC door.

UPVC stands for unplasticized polyvinyl chloride. As the name suggests, when no plasticizers are added to the PVC material which forms a hard material with no flexibility. This added advantage makes to build the door of tough quality with more durability.



8. PUF door.


PUF door.

Polyurethane foam ( PUF ) is sandwiched between the two sheets of the same materials on both sides forming PUF as the core material. These type of doors finds its usage where thermal insulation is the priority.

9. Fiberglass door.


Fiberglass door.

These doors have reinforced fiberglass as a skin, having the core part usually made up of wood or sometimes with the other materials. They can sustain harsh conditions and more durable when compared to wooden doors.


10. Steel door.


Steel door.

These doors are heavily built with a robust structure having safety as the primary goal of fixing them. You can find such type of door in the locker room of the bank or as a safety vault doors in the homes.


11. Composite door.


Composite door.

Composite doors are made by using vegetable fibers as reinforcement materials with the phenolic resins as the binder material. Some of the common vegetable fibers which are used are jute fiber, sisal fiber, banana fiber, coconut coir, bamboo fiber, etc. Sometimes two or more fibers are used in forming the different layers of the door. These doors are biodegradable and eco-friendly.


12. Mesh door.


Mesh door.

Mesh door provides good ventilation and air circulation and blocks the entry of insects (mosquito ) in your home. Usually, they are fixed as a secondary door to the main doors since they are not strong from the safety point of view. Door frames can be made of any material like wood, fiber, aluminum, etc.

13. RCC door.


RCC cement door.

In these types of doors, the frame is made up of RCC material and the sheets are made of cement and fibers. These doors are mostly used for the sheds, toilets, outhouses, etc. These doors are most economical when compared to all other types of doors.
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Different types of bathtub.

Now let us go through the different types of bathtubs based on the materials used in its manufacturing process.


1. Ceramic bathtub.


Ceramic bathtub.

Ceramic is the oldest and most common material used in the manufacturing of different building materials. They are easy to clean without much effort to maintain their shiny surface.


2. Porcelain bathtub.


Porcelain bathtub.

Porcelain is a type of stoneware usually made up of clay, feldspar, and silica. They have a hard and impervious surface which is achieved by vitrification.


3. Acrylic bathtub.


Acrylic bathtub.

Acrylic is a complex composition of fillers, dyes, resins, stabilizers, which react with each other to form the sheets. This polymer material is usually reinforced with synthetic fibers for stability.


4. FRP bathtub.


FRP bathtub.

Fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP ) is a polymer plastic with fiberglass ( usually ) as the reinforcement material. They are lightweight, strong, and anti-corrosive materials which makes them create their position in the construction industry.


5. Enameled bathtub.


Enameled bathtub.

The substrate ( outer material ) is made up of different metals and alloys like cast iron, steel, copper, etc. These materials are provided with the inner vitreous coatings which are also called porcelain enamel to have a hard seamless shiny surface.


6. Stainless steel bathtub.


Stainless steel bathtub.

Stainless steel is the most common material used in making the utensils. They have high temperatures and pressure-resistant properties with a robust body. These materials keep their metallic shining with the anti-rust properties.


7. Copper bathtub.


Copper bathtub.

Copper is known to have anti-virus and anti-bacterial properties. But they react with the acids and atmospheric oxygen, gradually forming the oxide coatings. They are usually enameled from the inside as shown in fig.


8. Marble bathtub.


Marble bathtub.

The bathtub is made up of artificially manufactured marble which is also said as cultured marble. They are made by blending the stone particles with the resins and pigments to have the realistic look.


9. Granite bathtub.


Granite bathtub.

A slab of the granite stone is cut into a specific pattern and then carved and polished from inside. They are heavier in a structure which makes them hard to transport. They provide a traditional and royal look to your bathroom.


10. Stone bathtub.


Stone bathtub.

Any hard stone is cut and carved very similar to the granite as said above to manufacture the bathtub of different shapes and sizes. This is the historical type of bathtub and nowadays we find its limited usage in everyday life.


11. Solid surface bathtub.


Solid surface bathtub.

These bathtubs are made by using good quality resins with aluminum powder and pigments. They come with sleek designs and varied colors. They are durable, easy to maintain with the impervious structure.


12. Concrete bathtub.


Concrete bathtub.

RCC bathtubs can be cast in place with the needed dimensions of your choice. You can make different shapes and sizes which fit into your bathroom. Even precast models are also available in the market with good inner finishing.


13. Tiled bathtub.


Tiled bathtub.

This is simply the extension of the RCC or masonry bathtubs. After constructing the bathtubs, they are fixed with the wall tiles both from inside and outside as shown in fig. This is the fixed type of bathtub, where you cannot shift its position.


14. Wooden bathtub.


Wooden bathtub.

This is the traditional type of bathtub where waterproof resin coatings were applied to the wooden surface after carving work, to protect it from the water and the external environment. Usually, a specific type of hardwoods is used to manufacture such types of bathtubs.

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Different types of plumbing pipes.

The plumbing pipe system can be broadly divided into two main types. 

They are,

A.)   Metallic plumbing pipes &

B. ) Non-metallic plumbing pipes.

Now let us observe the different types of pipes which come under each of these categories.


A.) Metallic plumbing pipes.


All the pipes which are made of different alloys and metals come under this system. They can withstand high pressure and temperature with robust and heavier structures. But they corrode and rust with the water and external environment, which you can prevent in the case of non-metallic plumbing pipes.

The different types are given below.

1.  GI plumbing pipe.


GI nipple.

The galvanized iron ( GI ) pipes were produced by treating the iron pipes with the zinc ( sometimes zinc + aluminum ) coating by the process known as galvanization. This surface treatment provides them with excellent anti-rust properties. These pipes are the most commonly used type due to their lower price range in comparison to all other types of pipes made up of different alloys and metals.




2. Brass plumbing pipe.


Brass pipe.


In the olden days, brass and copper piping were the people's choice for the plumbing system of their residential buildings. But nowadays, they were slowly replaced by the different varieties of polymer plastic pipes. The higher cost of the brass pipe made its usage limited.



3. Copper plumbing pipe.


Copper pipe.

The copper pipes are known to have anti-virus and antibacterial properties. But as mentioned above, due to their higher cost they are used only for some specific applications. The other disadvantage is they have poor alkali & acid resistant properties which makes them corrode in a long run.



4. Steel plumbing pipe.


Steel pipe.

These pipes can withstand a high level of temperature and pressure which makes them useful in all such circumstances. They have weather resistant and anti-rust properties, which are the basic necessity in all water piping systems. The main disadvantage is its price, which prevents its wide usage in all types of plumbing works.



5. CI plumbing pipe.

CI pipe.

Cast iron plumbing is a historical piping system that is replaced by all other types of pipings in today's world. But it is known that olden days (120 years old ) plumbing pipes made of these materials still works well with a little maintenance.



B.) Non-metallic plumbing pipes.


All the plastic and cement pipes come under this category. They have anti-corrosive, & anti-rust, properties which make them popular in general usage.

They are as given below.

1. PVC plumbing pipe.


PVC pipe.

Nowadays, polyvinyl chloride ( PVC) pipes are covering almost all types of plumbing needs of the common public. They are anti-rust, anti-corrosive, acid-proof, and alkali proof, which made them suitable for supplying water of any grade. They are available in various dimensions, according to the plumbing needs, within the affordable price range.



2. UPVC plumbing pipe.


UPVC pipe.


UPVC stands for unplasticized polyvinyl chloride. As the name suggests when no plasticizers are added to the PVC material they become hard, brittle, and less flexible. This makes it sustain irregular climatic conditions with low maintenance costs.



3. CPVC plumbing pipe.


CPVC pipe.

Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride ( CPVC ) is a recommended grade of piping system for the hot (only residential) water supply from the solar water heater and the geysers. They withstand more temperature and pressure when compared to the PVC pipes.


4. ABS plumbing pipe.


ABS pipe.

The full form of ABS is acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. They contain plastic hardeners known as BPA (Bisphenol A ) which makes them harder and more shock resistant. They are easy to install in comparison to PVC pipes. They can withstand cold temperatures but they deform when they are exposed to direct sunlight.



5. HDPE plumbing pipe.


HDPE pipe.

High-density polyethylene ( HDPE ) is a type of semi-crystalline thermoplastic. It is a petroleum product, with a hard and durable character. They are available in different sizes with the necessary fittings.




6. PB plumbing pipe.


PB pipe.

Polybutylene ( PB )  is a type of saturated polymer plastic resin. They are a flexible pipe system somewhat similar to the PEX pipe, but with lower bond strength. It reacts with the chlorine present in the water and eventually breaks out after a period of time. It was a popular pipe system in the olden days but due to its leakage and health problems, its use is limited in certain countries.


7. PEX plumbing pipe.


PEX pipe.

Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX ) piping system is a flexible type that needs fewer fittings to install. They don't need elbows at 90 degrees as they can bend easily which also shortens the pipe length. They can be used for both the hot and cold water supply and accepted all over the world due to their advantages over other piping systems.



8. RCC plumbing pipe.


RCC pipe.

These pipes are widely used for sewage, culverts, drainage, and irrigation works. They are classified as pressure ( P1, P2, P3, etc ) and non-pressure ( NP1, NP2, NP3, etc. ) pipes. They are available in different dimensions with the collars at one end for joining them together.


9. Asbestos pipe.



Asbestos pipe.

They are produced by adding asbestos fiber as a reinforcement material to the cement in the production process. Due to its health risk, its use is limited in the drainage system and all other underground piping works.

                                 Continued πŸ‘‰ plumbing valves


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Different types of Roofing sheets.

Now let us see the different types of roofing sheets which are used in construction work.

1. AC roofing sheet.


AC sheet.

Asbestos cement ( AC) sheet contains asbestos fiber as a reinforcement material mixed with the cement in the manufacturing process. Asbestos provides stiffness and rigidity to the sheet body to maintain its size without breakage. The fibers when inhaled for a prolonged time, they cause some diseases like lung cancer, mesothelioma, and asbestosis. Nowadays plant fibers are slowly replacing asbestos material since it is banned in several countries due to its health-related issues.


2. Aluminum roofing sheet.


Aluminum sheet.

The main advantage of aluminum sheets is their high strength-to-weight ratio. The lightweight lessens the dead load over the structures which in turn helps to provide the thin supporting structures saving the overall cost. Their anti-corrosive properties provide them with a longer lifespan and help to maintain their shiny luster. They are easy to install and have a low maintenance cost.


3. Polycarbonate roofing sheet.





Polycarbonate sheet.

Polycarbonate is an amorphous thermoplastic with carbonate groups in its chemical structures. They are light in weight and transparent. Due to its transparency, you can use the sheets in those areas where you need ample sunlight like in the patios, greenhouses, warehouses, carports, etc. The main disadvantage of this roofing sheet is the high cost which makes its usage limited.


4. FRP roofing sheet.




FRP sheet.

Fiber-reinforced plastic ( FRP ) is a composite material made up of thermosetting resin and fiberglass. Here, fiberglass acts as a reinforcement material to provide rigidity and to retain the molded shape. The roofing sheets are available in a flat or corrugated form with a variety of colors and designs. The degree of opacity in these sheets is controlled at the time of manufacturing, which helps to select the right sheet to have the needed amount of sunlight in the roofed area. They are anti-corrosive and can be repaired easily with less maintenance cost.



5. PVC roofing sheet.


PVC sheet.

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC ) is a type of thermoplastic polymer produced by the polymerization of the vinyl chloride monomer. The PVC roofing sheets are weather-resistant, non-corrosive, lightweight, and waterproof, which makes them more popular among all other types of sheets.



6. UPVC roofing sheet.


UPVC sheet.

UPVC stands for unplasticized polyvinyl chloride. As the name suggests, when no plasticizers are added to the PVC  material you will end up with the hard and rigid polymer plastic abbreviated as UPVC. These sheets are hard and rigid with no flexibility which makes them differ from PVC sheets in their functionality.



7. Plastic roofing sheet.



Plastic sheet.

Here, I have referred to polypropylene, polyethylene, PET, etc as plastics since they are commonly said so by the general public. The roofing sheets made of these plastics are used in light structural construction with specific usage. They are light in weight, anti-corrosive, flexible, and waterproof.




8. Color coated roofing sheet.



Color coated sheet.

Here, the steel and other alloy sheets were coated (surface treatment ) with the galvalume ( usually 55% aluminum, 43% zinc, and 1.5% silicon) combined with the high-quality colors having specific criteria. The coating provides a royal look with the added advantage of anti-corrosive property. They are available in single colored or multicolored patterns as shown in fig.


9. GI roofing sheet.



GI sheet.

In these types of sheets, iron or steel sheets were galvanized by zinc or zinc + aluminum to gain anti-corrosive properties. Hot-dip galvanizing and electro galvanizing are the commonly used processes for surface treatment. They are available in a variety of sizes with different gauge thicknesses.


10. PUF roofing sheet.


PUF sheet.

PUF stands for polyurethane foam. The foams are sandwiched between the two sheets of similar material and size. These sheets are used for the purpose where thermal insulation is the priority.



11. Rubber roofing sheet.



Rubber sheet.

They are the secondary roofing material cladded over the existing roofing system to provide waterproof and heat-resistant properties. Here, the EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer ) rubber is used which is rolled over the surface and glued or taped with the specific binding material to achieve a single frame.


12.  Bio-composite roofing sheet.



Bio-composite sheet.

These roofing sheets were manufactured by using plant fiber as the reinforcement material in the synthetic resins. Some of the fiber material which is commonly used in the production process are sisal fiber, jute fiber, banana fiber, coconut coir, etc. They are eco-friendly and provides a cultural look to the building.


13. Bitumen roof sheet.



Bitumen sheet.

These roofing sheets are available for both cold and hot temperature conditions. The main disadvantage is it absorbs the heat from the sunlight which heats up the building.


14. Bamboo roofing sheet.



Corrugated bamboo sheet.

These types of sheets provide a historical and traditional look to the roofed structure. The corrugated bamboo sheets were coated with resins to protect them from external environments.

                                      CONTINUED πŸ‘‰ PART 2















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