All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

Different types of roof tiles.

 Let us now go through different types of roof tiles based on the materials used in its manufacturing process.

1. Terracotta roof tile:

Terracotta is a natural material, made by firing the clay at a higher temperature. They are the oldest traditional type of roof tile and are widely used in different parts of the world.

2. Concrete roof tile:

Concrete roof tiles are available in varied colors with their thickness ranging from 5mm to 10mm. They are durable and can sustain uneven weather conditions.

3. Solar roof tile:

Roof tile acts as a solar panel to recharge the built-in power wall batteries in the daytime. They are renewable energy blocks having different dimensional features.

4. Ceramic roof tile:

These are the most popular roof tiles used from older times. They are the clay roof tiles fired at a higher temperature for vitrification. They maintain a cool inner temperature as they are made of natural clay materials in the summer season.

5. Polycarbonate roof tile:

They are thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their composition. Polycarbonate roof tiles are strong and tough when compared to plastic roof tiles. They can be manufactured as transparent, semi-transparent, and opaque, by adding suitable chemicals & colors while molding them.

6. Metal roof tile:

These are actually seamless roof tiles in the metal sheets, coated in different colors. They have a shiny surface & are available in different dimensions.

7. Plastic roof tile:

Recycled plastic is mostly used to make such types of tiles. They are lighter in weight and are available in different colored patterns.


8. FRP roof tile:

Nowadays, reinforced plastic is making its position in all types of building materials due to its added advantages. They can be molded in any design and patterns, injected with needed color dyes within them.

9. Composite roof tile:

Composite roof tiles are made of two or more types of materials sandwiched by coating binders to each material layer and applying pressure to them. Different types of plant fibers or synthetic fibers act as a reinforcement material in them.

10. Rubber roof tile:

They are often known as rubber shingles or slates having a flat surface appearance. Rubber sealant is used to fix them over the rooftops.

11. Handmade Clay roof tile:

These types of roof tiles are made in hand molds by using fire clay as the raw material. They are not shiny and durable when compared to the vitrified ceramic ( clay) roof tiles.

12. Acrylic roof tile:

They are made of acrylic resins added with suitable fillers and colors. Transparent roof tile made of acrylic material is good for positioning in the roofing areas, where you need sunlight to brighten your room. 

If you are living in a roof house, you can use these acrylic roof tiles for sunlight instead of the square glass pieces, to create a waterproof room with a better look. 

13. Stone roof tile:

The slates stone is used to cover the rooftop, which is cut into standard thickness and size. 


Different types of materials in making window grills.

Window grills are the protective barriers for the window openings,  anchored in the building walls or in the window frames. They provide security for the buildings from theft, animals, birds, etc.

Now let us see the different types of materials with which window grills are manufactured, to provide us with a choice, to select the one we need.

1. Mild steel window grill:

They are the commonly observed type, as they can be easily manufactured by any local fabricator, according to your window size and your preferred design. You have to apply antirust primer coatings and paintings to protect them from rusting. 

2. Stainless steel window grill:

Stainless steel gives a royal and elegant look to your building. They have a shiny surface finish with metallic brightness. They are rustproof but are on the higher budget side when compared to the MS windows.

3. Cast iron window grill:

Cast iron window grills are molded in the foundry by pouring molten cast iron into the preset grill patterns. They are heavier when compared to other types of window grills. These grills are available in standard sizes, and you have to keep your opening according to their size to fit them into the opening accurately.

4. Iron window grill:

These are fabricated and welded using flats and iron rods within the angle frames. They rust easily in moist weather conditions and in rainy seasons. So, yearly maintenance is a must for these grills to have a longer life.

5. Wrought iron window grill:

They are thinner in design when compared to the cast iron. They are manufactured in artistic designs like plant leaves, flowers, birds, animals, etc, and assembled by welding them to give a beautifully curved grill.

6. Aluminum window grill:

Aluminum window grills are the lightest of all the types of available grills in the market. You can see such types of grills in commercial complexes, banks, and public utility buildings.

7. RCC window grill:

When you think of the window grill for the small openings in the sheds, outhouses, garages, etc., the RCC grill is taken into consideration. They come in various sizes having different molded design patterns. These grills are economical, weatherproof, and handy.

8. Sandstone window grill:

Sandstone is carved beautifully to make these window grills. They provide a different look if you select them for the pooja rooms or any such internal wall openings.

9. Wood window grill:

The wood is crafted into various designs to make the grills. We cannot select wooden grills where security is the primary goal of the window grill.

Thank you for going through this article❤. Have a nice day😃.


Different types of tree guards.

 Tree guards are used in protecting the plant from external disturbances, mainly from the animals.

Now, let us observe the different types of tree guards based on the materials and their shape. 

A. Based on the materials 

1. Concrete tree guard:

Concrete tree guards are the most suitable type if you are looking for long-lasting, durable, and resistive to outer weather conditions. These guards can be reused for another plant once the plant for which these tree guards were used grows above the dangerous limit.

2. Wire mesh tree guard:

Wire mesh is curved into a cylindrical shape and welded at the joining ends to make such guards. It is better to paint them to elongate their life span.

3. MS tree guard:

MS materials like flats, tubes, square, or round rods were welded to manufacture these types of tree guards. They can be fabricated in different shapes and sizes according to your needs, as the local available fabricator can make that job for you.

4. Plastic tree guard:

Plastic tree guards are made up of PVC or HDPE wire mesh having different colors and shapes. They are not stiff and hard as compared to the concrete & steel made tree guards.

5. Wooden tree guard:

A wooden tree guard can be made by yourself or you can prepare them from any local carpenters according to your preference. In rural areas, these are the chosen type of tree guard, due to the easy availability of wood to them. They have a shorter life span if not coated with anti-termite and weather guard treatments.

6. Thorn tree guard:

You can see such tree guard arrangements followed by the forest department when they do plantation work in the rainy season. The thorn or prickles protect the plants temporarily to grow and become stable.

7. Brick tree guard:

Bricklayers were laid one over the other with openings in between them so that the plant gets proper sunlight and air. You can make such types of barriers by using any type of available building blocks in your region.

8. Bamboo mat tree guard:

As you can see in the above fig., the plant is covered by the bamboo mat, which acts as a protector for its growth.

B. Based on their shape.

1. Cylindrical tree guard:

The cylindrical type of tree guard is the most commonly observed pattern as they need less material in its manufacture and hence less cost. They also occupy less space having the tree as its center point.

2. Rectangular tree guard:

Rectangular tree guards having low height gives an aesthetic look plus protective surroundings to the plants & trees. These types of tree guards are usually made in the pathways of the apartments, roadside footpaths, commercial and educational hubs, etc. 

3. Triangular tree guard:

The triangular type tree guards were good for the plants or trees having a lower girth. The three side saves your 25% cost when compared to the square type of the same size that has four sides. 

4. Square tree guard:

The similar width and the length on all the four sides give them a square shape, giving equidistance protection for the tree from all the sides. The dimensions can be adjusted according to the purpose and need.

5. Pyramid tree guard:

The pyramid shape is given to give an architectural look to the tree guard where it is installed.

6. Polygonal tree guard:

Different types of polygonal shapes were created in this type of tree guards. You can see such type of tree guards in the parks, recreational areas, commercial and public buildings. 


Open well rings- types & their advantages./ Different types of open well rings.

Open well rings are available in two main types based on the materials used in their manufacturing process.
They are,

       1.  Open well RCC ring. 

RCC open well ring.

These are the most widely used type of rings as they are a highly suitable type to deal with. The diameter of these rings usually starts from 2ft and goes up to 8ft. You have to select the one that suits the size of your open well. The depth of these rings usually ranges between 6 inches to 3ft. 

The cost of these rings mainly depends upon the diameter, wall thickness, depth, and the raw material rate of the particular region, where it is manufactured. 

Normally, 2ft to 5ft diameter RCC rings are used for residential purposes, and the higher diameter rings are used in the well that is dug for agricultural, commercial, and public utility purposes.


       2.  Open well clay ring.

Clay ring used in the open well.

Open well clay rings are healthy when compared to the RCC rings. These rings act as a natural water purifier and keep the water cool in the summer season. We can say that they are the clay water pots inserted in the open well. I have seen such rings in the coastal southern part (in Kerala) of India.

These types of rings are also available in different dimensions but are limited when compared to the RCC ring. 

Advantages & importance of the open well ring:

1. Open well ring retains the soil from collapsing.

2. They act as a prefilter when the water percolates and recharges the well.

3. You can refill the outer side of the ring with gravel and sand, to remove the dirt and organic matter present in the flowing water before it enters the open well.

4. You can immerse the submersible pump in the open well without worrying about its clogging and maintenance cost.

5. They keep the water cool and healthy.

6. If you want to extend the depth of the open well in the near future, you can do so without fear of collapsing.

7. You can change the diameter of the well from any required depth, by installing smaller diameter rings.

8. These rings act as a ladder to move down or to climb up the open well when necessary, as they are provided with footstep (not for all types) or footholes.

well ring having a footstep. 

9. Open well rings act as a protective barrier for the children and other living beings when installed above the ground surface.

open well ring as a protective barrier.

 Go through the following article ðŸ‘‡           

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day😄.


How to check the silt content of loaded sand truck (or in sand depot) in one minute./ Instant test for silt content in sand./Field test for sand quality.

 When we dump the sand on the site, we do different types of field tests to check the content of silt in the sand. But once the sand is purchased from the supplier, it becomes difficult to send them back as the supplier may not agree to do so. So how about checking the silt content in the loaded sand truck before purchasing and dumping them on the site? 

 The following are the different methods by which you can check the silt content within a minute or two.

1. Clay balls:

clay balls found in sand.

The clay or silt has the tendency to create lumps due to its cohesive nature. So, check out for any clay/silt lumps in the sand-loaded truck at every edge and corner of the truck. If no lumps are found, then you can proceed with the next test.

organic balls found in sand.

You may also find some black-colored spongy type lumps in the sand. They are organic materials that come along with sand.

2. Rubbing in palm :

Take a sample of sand in your hand and add a little water if they are dry. Rub them in between your two palms for 5 to 7 seconds vigorously. Place back the sand in the truck and observe your palm. If the silt content is above the specified limit, then you will find them sticking to your palm as shown in fig. below.

silt stuck to the palm.

If the sand has limited or no silt present in it, you will find the sand grains on your palm as shown in the fig. below.

no silt on the rubbed palm.

3. Making sand balls :

Take a sample of sand and add water to make them slightly wet ( if dry). Squeeze them in your hand and try to make a ball out of them. If you are succeeded in making round balls, then don't look back at that material. 

sand making ball.

The silt, clay, or organic impurities present in the sand helps to make such balls in sand. If the shape of the ball is more stiff and more firm, then we can conclude that the sand has more silt content in it.

If the sand does not stick to each other by breaking apart, then you can consider buying that sand.

sand crumbles making no-ball.

4. Watercolor: 

Add water to the sand sample taken in your palm and squeeze the sand in between your palm applying pressure.

sand having silt.

 If the water oozes out with thick yellow or muddy color, you can say the sand contains silt or impurities in it and if the water drops out with pale yellow or transparent watercolor, then you can consider buying that sand.

sand having limited silt.

Checking by all these four methods will give you a good picture of approximate silt content in that particular sand, and helps you to make your decision in purchasing that sand. 

On the sand depot, you can do this as a comparative test for different types of dumped sand and choose the best one out of it.


These tests are not replacements for the field test and lab. test for the sand. You can say them as pre speed test before buying sand as the decision should be taken in lesser time.

After trial and error and getting some experience, you will learn to judge accurately the amount of silt present in the sand by following these methods.

Thank you for going through this field test . Have a good day ðŸ˜„.


Optimum moisture content & maximum dry density of soil - its importance.

 1. What is the optimum moisture content of soil?

We compact the soil when we use them as the filler material in various types of construction projects. The soil gets compacted fully, having no voids in them when the soil carries moisture content up to a certain level.

soil compaction.

The moisture content level at which the soil achieves its maximum dry density is called the optimum moisture content of that soil.

2. What is the importance of maximum dry density & OMC of soil?

When the construction soil (moorum) is used as the filler material, the first thing we do is, compact them by various methods to densely pack them having no voids in between the soil layers. As the compacted soil acts as a subsurface level to carry the loads, we need to prepare them having no voids between these filled materials. Improperly compacted soil leads to settlements and cracks in the buildings and in the infrastructures like roads, embankments, culverts, etc. So, it becomes necessary to measure the OMC and maximum dry density of soil to reach the required load-bearing strength.

3.  What is 95% of soil compaction mean?

We calculate the maximum dry density of soil in the laboratory using standard proctor or modified proctor density tests on the collected soil samples from the site. The soil so compacted on the site should at least reach 95% of its maximum dry density, which we have calculated in the laboratory, using either of these methods. We use a core cutter at different depths, to calculate the density of the in situ compacted soil.

core cutter.

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