All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

What is the ACP sheet?/ Pros & cons of ACP sheets.

 1. What is the ACP sheet?




ACP stands for aluminum composite panels. They have a core material sandwiched between the two thin aluminum sheets.

ACP sheets are available in a variety of textures & wide range of colors.


2. What are the advantages & disadvantages of the ACP sheet?

Advantages:

1. Weatherproof.

2. Easy to install.

3. It has a good strength-to-weight ratio.

4. Anti-corrosive & stain resistant.

5. UV resistant & hence no color fading.

6. Budget-friendly.

7. Available in a variety of colors & finishes.

8. Fireproof  & soundproof.

9. Highly durable. 

10. They are good heat insulators.

11. They can be bent or folded as per the design requirement.

12. Environment friendly & are fully recyclable.

13. Anti termite & anti-fungal.

14. Low maintenance & easy to clean.


Disadvantages:

1. Susceptible to dents if hit by any hard objects or stones.

2. Chances of water penetration through the joints if the sealing is improper.


 3. Where we can use ACP sheets?

ACP sheets are used for

1. Wall panelings.

2. The exterior architectural claddings.

3. Signboards & name boards.

4. Cupboards, cabinets, wardrobes, & modular kitchens.

5. The equipment & machinery coverings.

6. To build the partitions for the offices & home interior.



7. False ceilings.



8. Canopy, overhang, & soffits.



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What is a lightning arrestor for a building?/ What is lightning protection system for a building?/ FAQ over lightning arrestor.

 

Let us go through some of the FAQs related to lightning arrestors.

1. What is a lightning arrestor?




A lightning arrestor is a device used to protect buildings, power lines, electrical equipment, & structures from the voltage surges caused by lightning strikes.

They are installed at the top of the structures to create a passage for the surge voltage from lightning, to flow into the earth.


2. Why do we need a lightning arrestor?




When lightning strikes the structures, it passes into the ground by following the lowest resistance path. It might be the walls, power cables, or electronic devices.

A lighting arrestor creates a bypass for the safe transfer of the voltage to the ground. 

In other words, lighting arrestors protect the structures & equipment from the damage caused by the lightning strike. 

In high-rise buildings, it is a must to install the arrestors, as there is a high probability of lightning strikes or damages caused by the surge voltage.  


3. What is the cost of a lightning arrester for a home?

The cost of the conventional lightning arrestor depends upon the coverage radius, type of alloy or metal, no. of spikes, & size of the device.



Considering all these factors, the price of the arrestor ranges from INR 1200/- to INR 6500/- per no. 


4. Where should we place a lightning arrestor?



The lightning arrestor rod should be placed at the highest elevation of the structure. It should be at least 2 meters above the building top to fully conduct the voltage surge through its cable connector.

 The grounding cable is connected to the base plate of the arrestor rod & the other end is connected to the grounding terminal.


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How to calculate the total load over the RCC footings?/ Calculating the superimposed & dead load over the RCC footing.

 Let us calculate the total load over the RCC footing RF1 as shown below.




Calculation:

1. The dead load of the brick wall over PB2

 = [unit weight × (volume of the wall)]

= [unit weight × (length × depth × thickness )]

Here,

Length = [Total span of slab - (2nos.× column length)]

           = [3000mm. -  (2nos.× 450mm.)]

           = 2100mm. = 2.1m.

Depth = 2700mm. = 2.7m.

Thickness = 230mm. = 0.23m.

The dead load of the brick wall over PB2

= [ 1920 kg/cum. × (2.1m × 2.7m. × 0.23m.) ]

= 2503.87kg.

Also, read  👉👀 How to calculate the dead load of the brick wall?


2. The dead load of the brick wall over PB1

Here,

Length = [Total span of slab - (2nos.× column length)]

           = [4500mm. -  (2nos.× 450mm.)]

           = 3600mm. = 3.6m.

Depth = 2700mm. = 2.7m.

Thickness = 230mm. = 0.23m.


The dead load of the brick wall over PB1

 = [unit weight × (volume of the wall)]

= [ 1920 kg/cum. × (3.6m. × 2.7m. × 0.23m.) ]

= 4292.35 kg.


3. The total load over the plinth beam PB1

= [self wt. of PB1 + a dead load of the wall over PB1]

 = [ 1164.38kg. + 4292.35kg]

= 5456.73 kg.

Note: The self-wt. of the plinth beam is taken from the article 👇

👀 How to calculate the self-weight of RCC footings & plinth beams?


3. The total load over the plinth beam PB2

= [self wt. of PB2 + a dead load of the wall over PB2]

 = [ 776.25kg. + 2503.87kg]

= 3280.12 kg.


4. Self wt. of stub column

 = [unit weight × (volume of the stub column)]

Here,

Depth of stub column = 1000mm. = 1m.

Sectional dimension of stub column = 230mm. × 450mm.

                                                           = 0.23m. × 0.45m.

Self wt. of stub column

= [ 2500kg/m³  × ( 0.23m. × 0.45m.  × 1.0m.)]

= 258.75 kg.


Now,

Total load over the RCC footing RF1

= [{Load transferred from column C1} + {1/2 × ( Load from PB1 + load from PB2)} + DL of stub column + Self wt. of footing]

= [ {68.706 × 101.97 } + {1/2 × ( 5456.73 + 3280.12)} + 258.75 + 476]

= [ 7005.95 + 4368.43 + 258.75 + 476 ]

= 12109.13 kg

= 118.75 KN.

( As 101.97kg = 1KN)

Note: The total load from the column C1 is taken from the article 👇

👀  How to calculate the total load over the columns?

The self-wt. of the footing is calculated in a separate article  👇

 👀  How to calculate the self-weight of RCC footings & plinth beams?


Factored load over the RCC footing RF1

= [118.75 × 1.5]

= 178.12 KN


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How to calculate the self weight of RCC footings & plinth beams?/Dead load of RCC footings & plinth beams.

 Let us now calculate the self-weight or dead load of the RCC footing as shown in the drawing.



Given data:

Length at the base = L = 750mm.

Breadth at the base = B = 600mm.

Total height H = 500 mm.

Top surface length = l = 450mm.

Top surface width = b = 300mm.


Calculation:

The self-weight of any RCC structure is calculated by the formula

  = [Unit weight × volume.]

As you know, the unit weight of the RCC structure = D =2500kg/cum.


The volume of the RCC footing is calculated in a separate article as linked below.

👀. How to calculate the volume of concrete in trapezoidal footing?


The self-weight of RCC footing

= [ 2500 kg/m³ × 0.1904m³]

= 476kg.


 Let us now calculate the self-weight or dead load of the plinth beam as shown in the drawing.


Given data:

The span of  plinth beam-1 (PB1) = 4500mm.=4.5m.

The span of  plinth beam-2 (PB2) = 3000mm.=3.0m.

Sectional dimension of plinth beams = 230mm. × 450mm.

                                                           = 0.23m. × 0.45m.


Calculation:

The self-weight of the PB2

  = [Unit weight × (volume)]

 = [ 2500 kg/m³ × (3m × 0.23m. × 0.45m.)]

= 776.25kg.


 The self-weight of the PB1

  = [Unit weight × (volume)]

 = [ 2500 kg/m³ × (4.5m × 0.23m. × 0.45m.)]

= 1164.38kg.



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What is a void ratio of soil? - Significance & formula of void ratio.

 1. What is a void ratio?

The void ratio of soil is the ratio of the volume of voids to the volume of solids.

Let us observe the 3-phase diagram of the soil as below.



We can write the void ratio as

e = [Vv / Vs]

From the above diagram, we can also say

e = [ Vv / (V - Vv)]

Where,

V = total volume.

Vv = volume of voids.

Vs = volume of solid.

Va = volume of air.

Vw = volume of water.


2. What is the unit & symbol of void ratio?

The void ratio is represented by the symbol  👉 e.

As it is the ratio of the two different volumes, it does not have any unit.


3. What is the importance of the void ratio in soil?

The soil is a mixture of different size particles. These distributed particles are varied in their characteristics & properties.

So, the void ratio becomes an important factor to determine the soil properties like permeability, shear strength, density, compressibility, porosity, etc. All these properties are closely related to the void ratio of that particular soil.

Therefore, the void ratio is considered more significant than the porosity.


4. Can the void ratio be zero in soil?

No. The volume of voids cannot be zero in the case of soil. 

So, in all circumstances, void ratio (e ) > 0.


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How to calculate floor area ratio ( FAR ) for a building?

 What is the floor area ratio?

The floor area ratio is the ratio of a building's total floor area to the area of land or plot upon which the building is constructed.

FAR is fixed by the local governing authority & it varies depending upon the region & locality.

FAR = [Total covered area of all floors/area of land or plot. ]


Let us go through the examples to understand the FAR concept clearly.


Examples:

1. Calculate the FAR of a building having 3 floors built over 1200 sq ft. area. The area of each floor is 650 sq ft.

FAR = [total floor area area of plot]

Here, the total floor area

= [area of each floor х no. of floors]

= [650 sq ft. х 3 nos.]

= 1950 sq ft.

FAR = [ 1950 sq ft. ➗ 1200 sq ft.]

  FAR  = 1.625 


Note:

In some parts of the country, FAR is also denoted in percentages.

 FAR 150% or simply 150 is equivalent to FAR = 1.5. In this city, you can construct a building having a covered area of 1.5 times your plot. 


2. Calculate the total floor area of the building which you can construct over the plot of size 50ft.х 80ft. The permitted FAR of that particular city is 2.

FAR = [total floor area ➗ area of plot]

2 = [ total floor area ➗ (50ft. х 80 ft.)]

Total floor area = [2  х (50ft. х 80 ft.)] 

      Total floor area  = 8000 sq ft.


3. A plot owner wants to construct a building having 4 floors over the plot area of 4000 sq ft. The FAR of the locality is 2.5. What will be the covered area of the building, if all the floors are constructed having the same area? 

The total floor area that can be constructed 

   = [FAR  х plot area.]

 = [ 2.5 х 4000 sq ft.]

 = 10,000 sq ft.




The total area covered by the building 

= [total floor area ➗ no. of floors]

= [10,000 sq ft. х 4 nos.]

= 2500 sq ft.


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Concreting in water-logged foundation pit./How to do concreting work for building a foundation in water?

 The foundation area gets filled by the water due to the following 2 reasons.

a. Due to rainwater: 

If the RL of the foundation site is lower, the water gets accumulated in the area from the surrounding catchment area. The rainwater is a temporary problem & they subside or drain out in the coming season.


b. Due to water table:

If the level of the water table is above the foundation level, we have to deal with the situation by following certain methods, to maintain the quality of the foundation.

Now, let us understand the different methods or procedures to be followed while making the concreting work in the water-logged foundation area.


1. Working season:

If the construction work is not within the timeframe, the best way is to start the foundation work in the summer season. 

The water table sinks to the lower level in the summer season. This helps to save extra costs required in dewatering & labor.


2. Creating a sump:

Create a sump of 2' 🇽 2' size at the lowest level of the foundation area. The depth of the sump should be 2 to 4ft., depending upon the flow or percolation of water within the ground. 




The location of the sump should be selected in such a way that, it does not fall within the positioned foundation pit area.

Pumping out the water at regular intervals helps to maintain the water table below the strata base & the foundation laying becomes less tedious.


 3. Partial work:

The digging of the pit should be done partially or in batches depending upon the concreting capability. The water table softens the soil & the excavated pit collapses due to rising water. 




Part by part working reduces the re-excavation of collapsed soil & saves in our budget.


4. Soil stabilization:




If the soil strata get loose or soft due to the water table, we should stabilize the strata for further work. A layer of lime & sand mixture works better in handling the loose soils. Spread the dry mixture over the foundation base & compact them by using a rammer.


5. Laying boulders:




We should use boulders of a specified size to lay over the strata & to maintain the required SBC. The base level of the foundation PCC gets raised within the water, without compromising the load-bearing capacity of the soil.

The boulder should be rammed within the loose soil to embed densely into the soil bed. Any leftover voids should be filled by the murum (construction soil) or coarse aggregates. 


6. Dewatering:

Create a sump at the lower corner of the footing pit. Pump out the excess water continuously by using a water pump. While concreting, you should take care that the water level should not rise above the concrete level.




 Dewatering should be done until the concrete sets or hardens. Usually, 90 to 120 minutes of pumping is enough, as the concrete hardens within those time period. 

Keep a standby water pump in a ready position. If the running pump fails, handling the situation becomes difficult as we cannot leave the footing work incomplete in water-logged areas.


7. Concrete mix:

For the PCC bed work, we can use a stiff concrete mix. The concrete absorbs the water from the strata when we lay the foundation bed.



Add 10% extra cement to the concrete mix to maintain the safer designed strength. Any absorbed excess water weakens the concrete strength & adding extra cement helps to keep up the concrete grade.  

Out of all these 7 methods, follow those procedures, whichever is applicable to your site conditions.


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