# PARAM VISIONS

All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

• ### PARAM VISIONS

The vision of present and future

• ### BUILDING MATERIALS

Different types of building materials at a glance

• ### DESIGN AND DRAWING

For clear ideas in calculating building materials and structural design

• ### BUILDING DECORATION AND GARDENING

Interior and exterior of the buildings,land scaping,home gardening,fengshui and vastu made easier

• ### INFRASTRUCTURE AND USEFUL TIPS

We share useful tips in building construction and infrastructure knowledge with embedded youtube videos

### Calculating the weight of mild steel plate - rectangular, square and circular.

While designing steel structures in the civil construction, we use steel plates, cut into various sizes for the welding and bolting purpose.

Now, we will see the weight calculation procedure for the 3 most common types of mild steel plate cuttings.

### 1.  Rectangular-shaped mild steel plate.

Let us consider the MS plate of size 3m×2m×6mm. as shown in the fig. below.

 Rectangular mild steel plate.

Here, length L = 3m, breadth B = 2 m, and thickness T = 6mm = 0.006m

The volume of the steel plate

= length × breadth × thickness ( depth)

=  3m × 2m × 0.006 m = 0.036 cubic meter.

As you know, the density of mild steel

=7850kg/ cubic meter.

Weight of the plate = volume × density

= 0.036 × 7850

= 282.6 kg.

### 2. Square-shaped mild steel plate.

Let us consider the MS plate of the size 2m × 2m ×6mm. as shown in the fig. below.

 Square mild steel plate.

Here, length L = 2m, breadth B =2m. and thickness T = 6mm = 0.006m.

The volume of the mild steel plate

= length × breadth × thickness (depth )

= 2m × 2m × 0.006m.= 0.024 cubic meter.

As you know, the density of mild steel

=7850kg/ cubic meter.

Weight of the plate = volume × density

= 0.024  × 7850

= 188.4 kg.

### 3.   Circular-shaped mild steel plate.

Let us consider a circular steel plate of diameter 300mm.  and thickness 5mm. as shown in the fig. below.

 Circular mild steel plate.

Here, diameter D = 300mm. = 0.3m, and thickness T = 5mm.= 0.005m.

The volume of the circular steel plate

= ฯ  ×  (D × D) ÷ 4 × T

= 3.142  ×( ( 0.3 ×0.3) /4)  × 0.005

= 0.0003535 cubic meter.

As you know, the density of mild steel

=7850kg/ cubic meter.

Weight of the plate = volume × density

=0.0003535 × 7850

= 2.775 kg.

### Initial and final setting time of cement or concrete.

Now, we will go through, some of the FAQ regarding the initial and final setting time of cement.

### 1. What is the initial setting time of cement?

The time period where you can mold the cement mixture at any desired shape without losing its final design strength is called the initial setting time of cement.

 concrete poured over the slab.

or in other words,

When cement is mixed with water, from that moment cement starts to set slowly. So, this time period where the cement starts to lose its plasticity and making it hard to pour in the mold or in the formwork is taken as the initial setting time of cement.

For ordinary portland cement, this time period is about 30 min.

### 2.  What is the final setting time of cement?

The time period where the cement, after mixing with water, completely loses its plasticity and has the ability to withstand its shape in the molds or in the formwork with certain rigidity is called as the final setting time of cement.

For ordinary portland cement, this time period is about 600 min.

### 3.   What is the importance of the initial setting time of cement?

When the cement is mixed with the water, the hydration process starts and the cement began to harden slowly losing its plasticity. But after mixing concrete, we need some time to carry the concrete and place them in the formwork or any other molds. For most of the works, we can complete this job conveniently within 30 minutes of the time period. While manufacturing the cement, by taking this time period into consideration, certain ingredients were added to provide plasticity to the cement mixtures without losing its design strength.

### 4.  What is the importance of the final setting time of cement?

After pouring the concrete in the formwork or in the molds, the next day, we need the working area to be set, to walk over it, and to keep up the progress in the construction work. The formwork or molds needs to be removed and reused to reduce the working cost and also it becomes necessary to provide regular daily work for the laborers. Keeping it in mind, the convenient time period of 600minutes ( 10 hrs.) is maintained in the regular cement as the final setting time.

### 6.  What are the factors that affect the setting time of concrete?

1. Type of the cement used.

2. Fineness of the cement.

3. Quantity and quality of the water added.

4. Atmospheric conditions.

6.  Quality and type of sand used.

### 7.  Can we change the initial setting time of cement?

Yes. By adding the admixtures we can change the setting time of cement. We add chemical retarders to slow the setting rate and accelerator to speed up the process.

### 8. How we will test the initial and final setting time of cement?

We can test the setting times of cement using the Vicat apparatus.

 Vicat apparatus.

From the time when water is added to the cement, and until the time when the needle piercing the test sample is equal to  5.0mm ± 0.5mm. in the Vicat molds, is taken as the initial setting time of that cement.

The time period elapsed from the moment water is added to the cement until the time at which Vicat's annular attachment fails to make an impression over the test samples is taken as the final setting time of that cement.

### Plinth filling and back-filling procedure.

Plinth filling and back-filling are the methods of filling the building plinth, footing pits, excavated trenches, with the construction soil (moorum), after completing the necessary construction work.

Following are the step-by-step procedures, that should be followed in the filling work.

First, we will go through the pre-filling checklist, and after that, we will see the actual filling procedure.

### A. Pre-filling checklist:

#### 1.  Concrete works:

All the concrete structures like footings, columns, plinth beams, etc.  should be completed with de-shuttering of the formwork, removal of stagings, etc. All the honeycomb in the structures should be repaired before doing the plinth filling.

#### 2.  Plinth masonry :

All the plinth masonry work should be completed with the internal plaster, or by filling the leftover joints in a proper way.

 Plinth before backfilling.

#### 3.  Curing period :

Before doing filling, ensure that all the concrete structures and masonry works have completed its minimal curing period. It should be properly set, attaining its design strength.

#### 4.  Cleaning & dewatering :

The plinth area and footing pit should be checked for any leftover formwork materials and should be removed before filling. Any organic matter, wooden logs, plant roots, etc. should be cleaned, as they form voids after decay, causing settlement in the filling, due to weak compaction.

If there is any water in the pit, trenches, and in the plinth areas, it should be drained out.

#### 5.  Soil test :

The construction soil (moorum) should be free from organic matters, plant roots,  clay lumps, chemicals, etc. The soil should be granular in structure, with a reddish-brown color.

 Construction soil.

#### 6.  Excavated soil :

If the soil excavated from the footing pit is black cotton, it should be removed completely and strictly avoided from refilling. Any other type of excavated soil should be checked as per the soil specification, before using them in refilling.

 Black cotton soil.

### B.   Soil filling procedure:

Construction soil should be spread in layers of 15 to 20cm. thickness, if you are using manual rammers, and it can be filled up to 30cm in thickness for the mechanical compactors. In any case, you should not fill the soil layer above 30cm depth, to achieve good compaction of the soil.

Note:  25cm (10 inches) is the ideal depth for the plate vibrators or mechanical compactors.

#### 8.  Watering & compacting :

After completing the first layer of spreading, the soil should be sprinkled with water to attain optimum moisture content, so that we can achieve the maximum dry density of soil after compaction.

 Manual rammer.

The ramming should be done from one end, covering all the areas. It is always advisable to use mechanical compactors, as the work carried out will be more efficient.

 Mechanical compactor.

If the soil filling work is for the basement of the commercial complexes, then it is advisable to have an in situ core test for every soil layer, to get the soil density result, and to achieve the required maximum dry density of soil.

 Core cutter.

#### 9.   Soil layers :

The above procedure should be repeated in a layer by layer manner until the filling work is completed. For eg., if the depth of the plinth which should be filled is about 60 cm. then the work will be carried out in 3 - 4 layers using manual rammers, and we have to spread 2-3 layers of soil when mechanical compactors are on site.

 Plinth filled with soil.

Take the in-situ core samples before rubble soling work, to know the density and compaction of soil, if it is a commercial structure with more live loads over the floor. In the case of residential buildings, the tests are not necessarily required.

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### Calculating quantity of construction soil (moorum) required for the plinth filling.

Now, let us calculate the quantity of soil (moorum) required for the plinth filling procedure in the building plan given below.

Here, the depth of the plinth D =750mm.

Deducting rubble soling thickness, that is given as 230mm, we will get soil filling depth

d = 750mm - 230mm = 520mm.= 0.52 mtr.

Now, from the drawing, length for the filling

L = (5m.- width of the plinth beam)

=(5- 0.23) = 4.77mtr.

The width for the filling

W = (3m - width of the plinth beam.)

=(3 - 0.23) = 2.77mtr.

Now the volume of the plinth which should be filled by the moorum

= 2×(d ×L ×W)

= 2 × (0.52 × 4.77 × 2.77)

= 13.74 cubic mtr.

Here, we multiply the vol. by 2 for the two identical room plinths, as shown in the drawing.

When we fill the moorum in the plinth and compact them, we need 30% extra material as the moorum supplied to the site are loose soils with voids.

So, the volume of the construction soil (moorum) required

= 13.74+( (30/100) × 13.74)

= 13.74 + 4.122 =   17.862 cu.mtr.

or compacted soil = 1.3 × loose soil.

So, the quantity of construction soil required for the plinth filling

= 1.3 × plinth volume

= 1.3 × 13.74 = 17.862 cu.mtr.

To convert it into cubic ft., we will multiply it by 35.315

= 17.862 × 35.315 =  630.80 cubic ft. or 6.31 brass

 Plinth filled with moorum.

Note:  Compacted volume of the soil varies from 1.25 to 1.35 times the loose soil, depending upon the texture and the grain size. But for the calculation purpose, we generally consider it as 1.3 times the loose soil.

### Calculating the number of trucks or tractor trolley of construction soil required for the plinth filling:

Usually, the container size of the truck is 5cu.mtr. by volume. and tractor trolley is of  2cu.mtr in volume.

 Truck dumping the soil.

Now, the number of trucks needed to fill the plinth

= 17.862/5 =      3.57 nos.

The number of tractor trolley required to fill the plinth

= 17.862/2 =  8.931 nos.

or in another way,  suppose if the vol. of a truck container is 1.75 brass and the tractor-trolley is 0.70 brass,

then, the no. of trucks required

= 6.31÷1.75 = 3.60 nos.

The no. of tractor trolley required

= 6.31÷0.70   =  9 nos.

Thank you for going through this calculation๐.

If you have any queries, you can ask me in the comment section.

### Rubble (boulder) soling procedure for the foundation and footing.

Soling is the process of hand packing rubble stones one adjacent to another, to provide a stable base to the foundation and footing, before concreting work.

Rubble or boulder soling is done to enhance the bearing capacity of the soil, where hard strata are not available. The stones used for the soling purpose are basalt, black trap, granite, or locally available hard stones, that fit under the soling specification.

 Rubble stone.

After the excavation for the footing or after murum filling in the plinth, the next sequential work we follow is, providing rubble soling over them.

Now, let us go through the different steps that should be followed for the rubble soling work.

### 1.  Surface cleaning:

The base over which the soling should be laid is cleared of all the loose materials, formworks, props, etc. If you find any leftover building raw materials over the base surface, that should be shifted beforehand to clear the area.

### 2.  Leveling and compaction :

You have to ensure that the muroom ( construction soil ) filled in the plinth or excavated footing pit is properly compacted and leveled, using rammers and compactors to provide an even surface.

 Muroom filled plinth.

### 3.  Laying stones:

Usually, the thickness of the rubble soling varies from 150mm ( 6 inches) to 250mm. (10 inches). The stones selected for the soling should be of uniform size with a maximum variation of  ± 20mm. It should be elongated in shape with a broader base.

While laying them, the stones should be packed with minimum voids between the two. The elongated side is kept in the upright vertical position, with a broader base at the bottom.

 Rubble soling in the plinth.

First, you have to place the rubble soling, at all the four corners and at the center of the working area with the specified thickness. You have to check their top-level using a water tube or any other leveling instruments. By using lineout strings and tying or holding them from one to another, you can cover the leftover soling area easily, by maintaining the needed thickness and required top level.

 Soling for the footing.

### 4.  Void filling :

After packing the stones, any voids left in between the soling should be filled with stone chips by inserting them in the gaps. Spreading the stone chips over the rubble soling using ghamela, without packing the voids should be avoided, as it does not slide in between the gaps.

### 5.  Hammering :

After filling the voids, any protrusions of the stones should be knocked off by using hammers to maintain a leveled top surface. If you find some stones that are hard to break, then water the ground beneath the soling and press them inside the subsurface.

### 6.  Compaction:

Use mechanical compactors or manual rammers to compact the soling. First, you have to spray sufficient water all over and then compaction work has to be carried out starting from one end and finishing at the other end, by covering all the surface area.

Specified muroom is thinly spread all over the soling surface and watered again, so that the muroom enters the narrow voids if left any, to provide a robust stabilized base for the concrete.

Final ramming is done and excess muroom if left over the soling surface is then removed to provide a leveled base for the concrete.

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### Calculating volume and weight of the RCC Hume pipe.

Let us consider the RCC pipe of 2.5mtr. length with 900mm. outer diameter, having a wall thickness of 100mm.

 RCC pipe dimension.

Here, outer diameter D= 900 mm.,  wall thickness t = 100mm., and length of the pipe L = 2.5mtr.

 RCC pipe.

Now, inner diameter d = D - ( 2 × t) =  900 - ( 2× 100) = 700mm.

The volume of the RCC pipe = ฯ/4 ×  (D2- d2) × L.

= (3.142/ 4 ) ×  (0.92 - 0.72) × 2.5

= 0.7855 × 0.32 × 2.5 = 0.6284 cubic meter.

As you know, the density of RCC is 2500kg/cu.mtr.

Weight of the RCC Hume pipe = volume  × density

= 0.6284   ×  2500

= 1571 kg.

Similarly, you can calculate the weight of the  RCC pipe of different dimensions. Here, you have to replace the dimension in the above formula to get the answer.

 RCC Hume pipe

Note: The collar part, as you can see in the above fig.  can be calculated separately, and adding the pipe and collar weight gives the accurate result.

### Extending brick wall from the existing wall surface / Extension procedure for the brick wall.

When there is toothing for the existing brick wall, then it is a lot easier for us to carry out further construction work. The problem arises when there are no joints to provide bonding between the new wall and the existing wall.

 Toothed wall end.

Here, we will discuss different methods by which we can extend a new wall from the existing wall with proper bonding strength.

First, we will check out the different types of materials that are available in the market to do this job.

### 1. Wall starter connector:

They are made of stainless steel material with the toothing jaw placed at 225mm center to center. You have to bolt or screw the connector to the existing wall as shown in the fig. below.

 Wall starter connector.

### 2.  Wall starter screw ties:

 Wall screw tie.

 Wall starter anchor tie.

They can be plugged at the required course individually, to provide bonding between the two wall junctions. These ties are available in different curved shapes and sizes.

 plugging the screw tie.

The advantage is, you can screw them according to your brick course layer.

Now we will observe other conventional ways you can follow in a situation, where starter connectors are not available in your locality.

### 1.   Chiselling/Machine cutting:

 Cutting wall with a machine.

Chiseling or cutting the existing wall with the machine or by hand tools helps in setting the bond between the two walls. Cut the wall surface at least 50mm. in-depth with an undulated and rough surface to achieve a good tie at the meetup point.

 Cutting depth.

### 2.   Insert steel rods :

Steel bars of 8mm dia. should be hammered in the existing wall as shown in fig. The vertical distance between the two rods should be 9 inches, or at the level of every brick course. In any case, the gap between the rod inserted should not be more than 18 inches or an alternate brick course. The other end of the rod should be L-bend with at least 3 inches in length. Insert the rod with the anchor length of at least 1/3rd the existing wall thickness. The outer bar length of 10 inches from the wall surface is sufficient to provide a good tie-up strength.

 8mm bar anchored in the wall.

### 3.   Clamping the wall:

If the wall is for the partition purpose, and if the live load over the constructing wall is minimal, then you can get the required tie strength by fixing the door clamps to the existing wall.

 Door clamp.

Fix at least one clamp for the alternate course or on the better side provide one clamp for each layer of the brick masonry.

### 4.   Nailing the wall:

 Screwing the wall.

If the extending wall is a single brick partition wall of 4-inch thickness, without any live loads, then you can hammer or screw a plumbing nail at every brick course. The length of the nail or screw should be at least 5-6 inches in length, with the provision of a 3-inch anchorage for the new extension wall.

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### Measuring positive home energy using pendulum.

Your home should have positive vibrations which can be replenished by following certain methods. By using the crystal pendulum, you can measure the level of your home energy, which gives you the idea of positive vibrations dwelling in your home.

### Procedure to measure the positive home energy using pendulum:

1.  You have to use the chart as shown below, which has the energy index marked over it from 0 to 9 number, to check out the energy level of your home. You can prepare your own chart easily and take care to use pink paper or paint a pink color in the background.

 Energy index chart.

2.  Place the energy index chart at the central position (approximate) of your home and point the tip of the pendulum at the triangle drawn over the chart. It is advisable to use a crystal pendulum, as they resonate well with the home vibrations.

 quartz crystal pendulum.

3.  Now lift the pendulum tip about 2 to 3 inches from the energy chart and transfer your intention of measuring home energy to the pendulum, just by requesting it to do your job.

 pendulum above the chart triangle.

4.  After a few seconds, the pendulum starts swinging in to and fro movement till the edge of the chart.

5.  The sway of the pendulum from the central triangle point to passing above any number indicates the home energy level mentioned over the chart. Here, 0 represents high vibration, and no. 9 shows the extremely negative energy. You can judge your home energy as the pendulum is dowsing over any of these nos. between 0 to 9.

6.  Similarly you can measure the energy level of any other buildings or individual rooms, by following the same procedure.

### Making compost pit in your home garden.

Making a compost pit in your home backyard serves two purposes. Firstly, you can dispose of all your organic wastes in a proper way that are produced in your kitchen and in your home garden.  Secondly, you will get valuable fertilizers for your plants growth.

 compost pit.

Now, let us see the required dimensions of the compost pit and step by step procedure to make compost of your own.

### Procedure to make a compost pit:

1.  Select the area in your backyard which should be at least 20 ft. away from your home to avoid foul smell or flies entering your home. If you follow the proper procedure, you won't get such problems of bad smell, but on a safer side making a pit beyond 20ft. distance is a good solution.

2.  The compost pit area should receive direct sunlight, that helps to decompose the organic wastes at a faster rate.

3.  Dig a pit of size 80cm * 70cm * 35 cm as shown in the diagram below.

 compost pit dimension.

where Length = 80cm.  width = 70 cm. and depth = 35cm.

The dimension mentioned above is ideal for the home with 3 to 5 family members.

4.  If the soil is of collapsible type, then make a brick masonry or stack the brick one above the other to prevent the soil from coming down. Make sure that, the inner dimension of the brick masonry should be 80cm*70cm*35cm

5.  Dig 2 pits of similar dimension to make the process rotational with a 3 month cycle period.

Note:  This is the ideal optimum depth for the formation of the compost, if the depth increases further, rate of decomposition speed decreases and vice versa.

### Procedure to make compost at your home:

1.  Add a 2 to 3-inch layer of garden soil that should be spread at the bottom of the pit.

2.  Start adding the kitchen wastes in the pit by pouring them evenly to maintain a proper layer. You should avoid adding bones as they are harder to decompose in a short period of time. You have to bifurcate the wastes and in any case, plastic items should not be added in the pit. All types of papers, cardboard, and clothes made of cotton makes no harm as they are manufactured by organic matters.

3.  After pouring the kitchen wastes for a period of one week, now it is time to spread the garden wastes like dry leaves, small sticks, unwanted weeds, and pruned parts of the garden plants over the kitchen waste, forming the third layer of 2 to 4-inch thickness.

4. Again add a layer of garden soil of 2 to 3-inch thickness as you did in the initial stage, spreading them evenly, covering all the organic wastes.

5.  Now sprinkle some water in the pit to keep these wastes in a moist condition that boosts the decomposing process, by encouraging the worms (earthworm) and bacterias.

6.  Repeat the procedure in a layer by layer manner until the top surface of the filling material is just 2 inches below the ground surface. Always the last layer should be of soil to cover them completely.

7. It usually takes 75 to 100 days to complete this process, and now it is time to move to the second fresh pit and repeat this cycle.

8. You have to ensure that the first filled compost pit is always kept in a moist condition.

9.  As the days go by, you will observe that the wastes in the first compost pit get reduced in a volume.and top-level falls almost half of the pit depth.

10.  By the time your second pit comes up to the filling level, the first one is ready with the natural compost, that you can use for your garden plants or store in a bags for the later use.

 compost.

11. By mixing and agitating the wastes, making them upside down will help to produce compost at a faster rate, but not necessarily required if you have the patience to wait for 3 to 31/2 months.

12. This procedure will give you the compost from a single pit twice a year and two such pits will make you self sufficient, by supplying organic compost to your garden all round the year.

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### Different methods to locate underground water on your land/Different types of tools or materials used to locate underground water.

From ancient times, different methods were used to locate the presence of underground water and nowadays, instruments were replacing the older methods to provide us better results.

Let us go through some of the important ways with which groundwater resources can be located.

The different methods and tools used in water locations can be broadly divided into two types.

They are,

A.   Manual method and            B.  Instrumental method

First, we will see the different tools or materials used in finding the groundwater through,

## A. MANUAL METHOD:

Here, you have to walk in your land in all those areas where you want to find an underground water location, with the following given tools or materials held in your palm, until you get a good result.

### 1.    Y -stick:

The two ends of the Y-stick is held loosely with both hands applying a little pressure in the outer direction. The other end of the stick raises upwards in the ground position, where there is a possibility of groundwater beneath the surface.

 Y-stick

### 2.    L - rods:

The L- rods are made up of metals like copper or aluminum as shown in the fig. below. The shorter side should be held in both hands, with the longer portion of the L- rods are parallel to each other. They should be 6 to 10 inches apart from each other. The longer part of the L- rod crosses each other making x-shape when water flow is found underground.

 L-rod.

### 3.   Pendulum:

This method of finding water using a pendulum is said as dowsing. The string of the pendulum should be held in two fingers. It sways to and fro to show the water presence, and swings in a circular motion at the water location point of your land.

 Pendulum.

### 4.   Coconut:

The coconut should be held in the palm as shown in the fig. The front side of the coconut raises slightly where there is a groundwater flow. If there is a strong upward raise, then we can say that there is a  good water stream beneath.

 Coconut.

## B.   INSTRUMENTAL METHOD:

Nowadays, as the cost of drilling borewell is on the higher side, everybody needs an accurate way of analyzing the water table and availability of the amount of water. These instrumental methods are more costly when compared to the manual method, but saves over larger investment with greater accuracy.

The instruments mainly work on the following two principles.

They are,

### 1.   PMR method:

PMR stands for proton magnetic resonance. It consists of two electrodes which are plugged in the ground at a particular distance. The instrument receives a signal transmitted by the hydrogen atoms, through these electrodes, which shows the presence of groundwater underneath.

 PMR instrument.

### 2.   VLF method:

In this method, the instrument uses electromagnetic signals by magnetic induction, and hence no electrodes needed. The antenna present over the instrument rotates in a circular motion when the groundwater is located in your land.

 VLF instrument.

By using instrumental methods, we can find out the depth of the groundwater from the surface and the approximate amount of water you will receive in that particular location.

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### Binding wire in civil construction.-their specification & requirement.

Now, let us go through some of the FAQs related to the binding wire, used in the construction field.

 Binding wire.

### 1.   Why the binding wire is used in civil construction?

Binding wire is used for tying the rebar so that it is held in its position firmly without any displacement. We provide the rebars and stirrups at a proper center to center distance from each other, as per the design calculation and specification. When we place the green concrete and vibrate them, the rebar should not be shifted from its given position. So the binding wires of the proper gauge are used to tie the rebar firmly with one another.

 Rebar tied with binding wire.

### 2.  What is the quantity of binding wire required per ton of reinforcement steel?

The thumb rule for calculating the weight of the binding wire is 1% of the total weight of the reinforcement bar.

Suppose if the quantity of rebar is 100kg., then the approximate quantity of binding wire required is 1kg. So we can say that for every one ton of rebar purchased, we have to take 10kg. of binding wire.

But, in reality, the weight of the binding wire needed for 1 ton of the rebar varies from 7kg. to 13kg depending upon the diameter of the rebar and some other factors which we will discuss in the next question.

Given below is the approximate weight of the binding wire required, per ton of the rebar of different diameters.

Rebar diameter                                 Binding wire/ton of rebar

6mm dia.                                                13kg.

8mm.  dia.                                              12kg.

10mm. dia.                                               11kg.

12mm dia.                                               10kg.

............32mm. dia                                                 7kg.

From the above table, we can see that the lesser the diameter of the rebar, the more the quantity of binding wire required and vice versa.

So taking the average of binding wire i.e. (13kg+7kg.)/2 which comes to 10kg./ton (by thumb rule) of the rebar we use.

### 3.  What are the different factors that affect the quantity of binding wire required?

The different factors which affect the quantity of binding wire in the construction are,

1.  Diameter of the reinforcement bar.

2.  Spacing of the rebar from each other.

3.   Type of structural member.

4.   Gauge and type of binding wire used.

5.   Selection of tying ways or methods of binding wire.

6.   Tying manually by hook or tying mechanically by using rebar tying tools.

7.  Type of the constructional structure (like building, dam, bridge, etc).

### 4.  What is the gauge of the binding wire used in civil construction?

The gauge of the binding wire varies from 16 gauge to 22 gauge, depending upon the grade, type of the binding wire material, and surface treatment. But the widely used one is 18gauge annealed binding wire.

In India, the binding wire provided by Tata Tiscon comes in the range of 0.61mm. to 1.22mm.

Note: The gauge of the binding wire for the rebar tying tool is usually 21-22 gauge or 0.813mm.

### 5.   What is the specification for the binding wire in India?

You can refer IS 280(2006) for the specification like tolerance, tensile properties, chemical and physical requirements, etc.

### 6.   How to measure the gauge of the binding wire on the construction site?

The specification of the binding wire will be mentioned over the bundle of the branded product, however, on-site you can use a screw gauge to find out the binding wire gauge.

 Screw gauge.

If you have any queries regarding binding wire, you can ask me in the comment section.

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### What is brass in civil construction? Its conversion and weight calculation.

Brass is a non-standard unit that is still prevalent in India with a history of 200 years or so. The word brass is used as a measurement unit, that represents the multiple of 100 for both the volume and the area in the British system.

Now let us go through, some of the FAQ related to the term brass in the civil field.

What is brass in civil construction?

The term brass means 100 cubic feet when we calculate the volume of any building materials in the construction field, and it is also equivalent to 100 square feet when we estimate the surface area.

When the building materials like sand, metals, muroom, boulders, etc. are brought on the construction site by trucks, dumpers, tractors, or any such vehicles,  we denote the volume by the word brass.

In context, the area covered by the flooring, tiles, plaster, paintings, etc. in the buildings, is also represented by the same word, i.e. brass.

How to convert one cubic meter into brass?

As you know,  1brass = 100 cubic ft.

and 1cubic meter= 35.315 cubic feet.

So, 1 brass = 100/35.315 = 2.831 cubic meter.

Inversely, 1 cubic meter = 35.315/100 =0.353 brass.

What is meant by one brass material in a truck?

Suppose if the size of the truck container is  14ft.in length (L), 7ft.in width (W), and 3ft. in depth(D), then the volume of the container = L*W*D = 14ft*7ft*3ft = 294 cubic ft.

Now, 1 brass = 100 cubic ft. So, converting the cubic ft. into brass i.e. 294/100 = 2.94 brass.

When the truck of the above container size supplies the sand up to the brim, then we measure it as 2.94 brass of sand.

How to calculate the weight of one brass of sand?

The weight of one cubic meter of sand is 1630kg. (approx.)

1 brass = 2.831cubic meter (we calculated above).

So, the weight of 1 brass of sand = 1630*2.831= 4615kg. i.e. 4.615ton.

Similarly, we can calculate the weight per brass of other building materials.

What is meant by one brass of plaster?

Suppose if the surface of the wall plastered is 100 sq. ft. in area, then we call it one brass of plaster.

For eg., if the plastered area of the wall is 25ft in length and 10ft. in height then the area we get is 25ft.×10ft.= 250sq.ft.

To convert it into brass we have to divide the value by 100, i.e. 250 ÷100 =2.5 brass. of plaster.

Suppose if the above-given measurement is in meters, then the area we get is

25m × 10m = 250sqm.= (250× 10.764 ) sqft = 2691sqft.

To convert it into brass we have to divide the value by 100, i.e. 2691 ÷  100 =26.91 brass. of plaster.

or  250sqm ÷ 9.29 =26.91brass ( 1sqm = 9.29 brass )

In the same way, you can convert the area of the flooring, painting, punning, etc. into brass and vice versa.

#### Brass conversion for the areas.

100sqft. = 1brass.

100sqm = 10.764brass

Inversely, 1brass = 9.29 sqm.

If you have any questions regarding brass and its calculation procedure, you can ask me in the comment section.

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