# PARAM VISIONS

All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

• ### PARAM VISIONS

The vision of present and future

• ### BUILDING MATERIALS

Different types of building materials at a glance

• ### DESIGN AND DRAWING

For clear ideas in calculating building materials and structural design

• ### BUILDING DECORATION AND GARDENING

Interior and exterior of the buildings,land scaping,home gardening,fengshui and vastu made easier

• ### INFRASTRUCTURE AND USEFUL TIPS

We share useful tips in building construction and infrastructure knowledge

### Design of a column./ How to design the diameter & no. of reinforcement bars required in a column?/ How to calculate the dia. & no. of bars in a column?

Eg:

Calculate the diameter & no. of steel bars required in a column of dimension 225mm. x 300mm. The column has an axial load of 570KN. M25 grade concrete & Fe-415 steel are used in the column.

Given data:

Axial load over column = 570KN = 570 x 10³N

Column size = 225mm. x 300mm.

Characteristic compressive strength of concrete=fck=25N/mm²

Yield strength of steel = fy= 415 N/mm².

Calculation:

Ⅰ. Longitudinal reinforcement:

As per IS code

Pu = [0.4 x fck x Ac + 0.67 x fy x Asc] -----------①

Where,

= [factor of safety x axial load over column]

= [ 1.5 x 570 x 10³N]

Pu = 855 x 10³N.

Ac = Sectional area of concrete

= [Ag - Asc]

Here,

Ag = Gross sectional area of the column

= [225mm. x 300mm.]

= 67,500mm²

Asc = Sectional area of steel =?

Putting all the values in formula ①

Pu = [0.4 x fck x (Ag- Asc) + 0.67 x fy x Asc]

855 x 10³ = [0.4 x 25 x (67,500- Asc) + 0.67 x 415 x Asc]

855 x 10³ =[6,75,000 - 10Asc + 278Asc]

855 x 10³ = 6,75,000 +268Asc

268Asc = [8,55,000 -6,75,000]

268Asc = 1,80,000

Asc = [1,80,000  268]

Asc = 671.6 mm²

Let us provide a minimum size diameter bar as per IS code, i.e. 12mm.

The sectional area of 1 bar

=[ Ï€ x d² 4]

= [  3.142 x 12² ➗ 4]

= [452.448 ➗ 4]

= 113.11 mm².

No. of rebars required

= [Asc area of 1 bar]

= [671.6 113.11]

= 5.94 nos.

By rounding off, the no. of bars required = 6nos.

Now,

The actual sectional area of steel

= [6nos. x 113.11]

= 678.66 mm².

Ⅱ. Transverse reinforcement:

1. Stirrup ( lateral tie) diameter:

As per IS code,

The diameter of lateral tie bars should be at least 1/4th the dia. of the main bars.

i.e. = [1/4 x 12mm.]

= 3mm.

So, we can provide a 6mm. or 8mm. dia. lateral tie which is > 3mm., & hence safe.

2. Spacing of stirrup:

The c/c spacing of lateral ties shall not be more than the least of the following three criteria.

a. The least sectional dimension of the column

= 225mm.

b. 16 times the smallest dia. bar of the longitudinal reinforcement

= [16 x 12mm. ]

= 192mm.

&

c. 300mm.

The least of all the 3 conditions is 192mm.

Hence, we can provide c/c spacing of lateral tie as 192mm.

Thank you for going through these calculation steps. Have a good day ðŸ˜„.

### Different ways to make your roof top cool./How to reduce the summer heat by making the roof cool?

Let us discuss the different ways to make our rooftop cooler in the summer season.

1. Terrace garden:

Growing our own terrace garden helps us in two ways. You will get fresh vegetables for your daily use & also it reduces the terrace top heating. The plants & the soil surface absorb the sunlight & create a cooler atmosphere.

2. Reflective paint:

As the name suggests, these types of paints reflect up to 97% of the sunlight. The coated layer of the paint reduces the heat penetration from the rooftop, which in turn keeps the interior cooler & comfortable.

You can create shades over the terrace by using different types of materials. Among them, a green shade net is the cheapest & the best option to block the sunlight. You can build a simple fabrication structure for green shade coverings over the roof.

4. Heat-reflective flooring:

The heat reflective tiles emit the absorbed solar radiation back into the atmosphere. They are lighter in color to enhance the reflection process. These tiles have a solar reflective index value > 90%, which reduces the inner temperature of the building up to a degree of 20%.

5. Solar panel:

Installation of the solar panel acts as a barrier to the sunlight. The larger the area of the solar panel over the rooftop, the cooler will be the home interior.

6. False ceiling:

The false ceiling blocks the heat penetration by creating a layer of voids in between the roof & the room interior. Among them, the thermocol ceiling is the cheapest & the best option to create a cooler & comfortable interior.

To know it in detail, Go through the article ðŸ‘‡

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day ðŸ˜„.

### Rebar weight calculator./ Weight calculator for reinforcement bars.

To know the calculation procedure,  Go through the article ðŸ‘‡

ðŸ‘€.   How to calculate the weight of reinforcement bars?

Note:

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

For more such calculators, click ðŸ‘‡

Instant calculators.

Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day ðŸ˜„.

### Calculator for 4-legged stirrups./ Cutting length calculator for four legged stirrup bar./Calculator for 4-legged lateral ties.

To know the calculation procedure,  Go through the article ðŸ‘‡

ðŸ‘€.  How to calculate the cutting length of 4-legged stirrups?

The 4-legged stirrup calculator for the MKS  FPS system is given separately. Calculate according to your requirements.

Note: The cutting length of stirrup-1 & stirrup-2 will be the same in 4-legged stirrups.

Note:

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

For more such calculators, click ðŸ‘‡

Instant calculators.

Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day ðŸ˜„.

### Calculator for 2-legged stirrups./ Cutting length calculator for two legged stirrup bar./Calculator for 2-legged lateral ties.

To know the calculation procedure,  Go through the article ðŸ‘‡

ðŸ‘€.  How to calculate the cutting length of 2-legged stirrups?

The 2-legged stirrup calculator for the MKS  FPS system is given separately. Calculate according to your requirements.

Note:

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

For more such calculators, click ðŸ‘‡

Instant calculators.

Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day ðŸ˜„.

### How to calculate the cutting length of 2-legged stirrups?/ Calculating the cutting length of 2-legged lateral ties.

For the calculation procedure, go through the following steps.ðŸ‘‡

Let us calculate the cutting length of the 2-legged stirrup as shown below.

Given data :

Column size = 225mm × 300mm.

Clear cover = 40mm.

Rebar diameter = 12mm.

No. of rebars = 4nos.

Stirrup bar dia. = 8mm.

Calculation:

The cutting length of the stirrup

=[{(2nos. × (a +b )) + (hook length )} - {(90° bend ) + (135° bend)}]

As you can observe in the above drawing, the stirrup has

90° bend   ðŸ‘‰ 3nos.

135° bend ðŸ‘‰ 2nos.

Hook length ðŸ‘‰ 2nos.

Therefore, the cutting length of the 2-legged stirrup

=[{(2nos. × (a +b )) + (2nos.× hook length )} - {(3nos.×90° bend ) + (2nos.×135° bend)}]

Where,

a = [column length - (2nos.× clear cover) - (2 nos. × 1/2 × diameter of stirrup bar.)]

= [300mm. - (2nos.× 40mm.) - (2nos. × 1/2 × 8mm.)]

= [300mm. - 80mm. - 8mm.]

a = 212mm.

b =  [column width - (2nos.× clear cover) - (2 nos. × 1/2 × diameter of stirrup bar.)]

= [225mm. - (2nos.× 40mm.) - (2nos. × 1/2 × 8mm.)]

= [225mm. - 80mm. - 8mm.]

b = 137mm.

The cutting length of the 2-legged stirrup

=[{(2nos. × (a +b )) + (2nos.× hook length )} - {(3nos.×90° bend ) + (2nos.×135° bend)}]

=[{(2nos. × (212mm. +137mm.)) + (2nos.× 10d )} - {(3nos.×2d ) + (2nos.× 3d)}]

= [{(2nos. × 349mm.) + (2nos.× 10 × 8mm.)} - {(3nos.×2 × 8mm. ) + (2nos.× 3 × 8mm.)}]

= [ {698mm. + 160mm.} - {48mm. + 48mm.}]

= [858mm.- 96mm.]

= 762mm.

= 0.762m.

For BBS & cutting length of all types of structural members, click here.

Thank you for going through these calculation steps. Have a good day ðŸ˜„.

### Calculator for triangular stirrups./ Cutting length calculator for triangular stirrup bar.

To know the calculation procedure,  Go through the article ðŸ‘‡

ðŸ‘€. How to calculate the cutting length of triangular stirrups?

The triangular stirrup calculator for the MKS  FPS system is given separately. Calculate according to your requirements.

Note:

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

For more such calculators, click ðŸ‘‡

Instant calculators.

Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day ðŸ˜„.

### Calculator for diamond stirrups./ Cutting length calculator for diamond stirrup bar.

To know the calculation procedure,  Go through the article ðŸ‘‡

ðŸ‘€.   Calculating the cutting length of diamond stirrups in column

The diamond stirrup calculator for the MKS  FPS system is given separately. Calculate according to your requirements.

Note:

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

For more such calculators, click ðŸ‘‡

Instant calculators.

Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day ðŸ˜„.

### Calculator for helical stirrups./ Calculator for spiral rings in the pile foundation.

To know the calculation procedure,  Go through the article ðŸ‘‡

ðŸ‘€. How to calculate the cutting length of spiral stirrups(ring).

Note:

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

For more such calculators, click ðŸ‘‡

Instant calculators.

Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day ðŸ˜„.

### Calculator for circular stirrups./Cutting length & weight calculator for circular stirrup bars./Calculator for round column lateral ties.

To know the calculation procedure,  Go through the article ðŸ‘‡

ðŸ‘€.  How to calculate the cutting length of a circular stirrup?

The circular stirrup calculator for the MKS  FPS system is given separately. Calculate according to your requirements.

Note:

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

For more such calculators, click ðŸ‘‡

Instant calculators.

Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day ðŸ˜„.

### Calculator for trapezoidal footing./

To know the calculation procedure,  Go through the article ðŸ‘‡

ðŸ‘€.  Material estimation for M25 grade concrete.

The trapezoidal footing calculator for the MKS  FPS system is given separately. Calculate according to your requirements.

Note:

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

For more such calculators, click ðŸ‘‡

Instant calculators.

Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day ðŸ˜„.

### Calculator for columns & beams./ Self weight calculator for columns & beams./ Material calculator for columns & beams.

To know the calculation procedure,  Go through the article ðŸ‘‡

ðŸ‘€.  Material estimation for M25 grade concrete.

The column & beam calculator for the MKS  FPS system is given separately. Calculate according to your requirements.

Note:

This calculation tool has been created with the greatest possible care. However, we cannot be held liable for its correctness.

For more such calculators, click ðŸ‘‡

Instant calculators.

Thank you for using this calculator . Have a good day ðŸ˜„.