All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

What are motorized or automatic curtains?

Let us go through some of the FAQs related to motorized or automatic curtains as below.


 1. What are motorized or automatic curtains?




The curtains, which can be opened or closed by using remote control are said to be motorized curtains. You can open the curtain by push of a button from anywhere in the room. 


2. How do the curtains open automatically?




The track of the curtain is connected with a motor hanging vertically at the edge. The cords within the track are attached to the curtain hooks. The motor pulls the cord in both directions to open or close the curtain.



3. What are the pros & cons of motorized curtains?


Pros:

1. Can be operated by sitting in any corner of your room.

2. You can attach a smart switch module or programable timer to the curtain. This helps to open & close the curtain at a scheduled time.

3. Provides a smart & rich look to your interior.

4. Beneficial for the elderly people who find it difficult to move for the opening, closing, or adjustment of curtains.

5. Can be used for curtains that are above your reach or inaccessible.


Cons:

1. Motorized curtains certainly cost more when compared to regular curtains.

2. Needs skilled workers to install the curtain.

3. If the curtain gets stuck due to a failure in the mechanism, you cannot open them by hand.

4. Regular maintenance & repair will be a minus point when compared to the normal curtains.



4. Can I motorize my existing curtains?

Yes. The existing curtains can be reused with the motorized track. Most of the regular curtain hooks are compatible with the automatic curtain tracks.




Nowadays, you can use a switchBot to fit into any regular curtains for to & fro operation. Switch bot rolls over the track and moves the curtain along with it. 

Within a few minutes, you can install switchBot over the existing curtain tracks to start the operation.


5. How much does it cost for automatic curtains?


SwitchBot curtain cost INR 7899/- per no.

Motorized curtain system ranges from INR 15000/- to INR 45000/-, depending upon their functionality & operating capacity.


6. Do motorized curtains has timers?

Yes. You can set programable timers for the motorized curtains. By using smart switches, you can operate them by Alexa or google mini. 


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What is WCB & RB in surveying?/ Comparing whole circle bearing with reduced bearing.

  WCB 👉  Whole circle bearing:

In WCB, the bearings are measured from the north of the reference meridian.

These bearings lie between 0° to 360° in the clockwise direction. In prismatic compass surveying, we use whole circle bearings. WCB is also referred to as the Azimuthal bearing system.

In the WCB system,

North 👉  0°

East   👉  90°

South 👉  180°

West  👉 270°




Some Eg:

In WCB, the line AB is measured at 52° from the north as shown below.



Similarly, the line BC  is measured at 285° from the north as shown in the below drawing.


To understand A to Z of surveying, click here.


RB 👉  Reduced bearing:

In RB, the bearings are measured from the north or south, either in clockwise or anticlockwise directions. The reading is taken depending upon the quadrantal positioning of the line.

 In this system, the bearing is referred to by 4 possible quadrants i.e. NE, NW, SE, & SW. Therefore this system is also called quadrantal bearing.

The angles in the RB system lie between 0° to 90°. 

In surveyors compass, we use the RB system. 


Some Eg:



1. The line AB lies in the NW quadrant i.e. 4th quadrant. This line is nearer to the north line & away from the south line. So, the angle is measured in an anti-clockwise direction from the north line. 

To understand the position of line AB, the measured angle is denoted as N34°W 






2. The line AB lies in the NE quadrant i.e. 1st quadrant. This line is nearer to the north line & away from the south line. So, the angle is measured in a clockwise direction from the north line. 

To understand the position of line AB, the measured angle is denoted as N55°15'E 






3.  The line AB lies in the SE quadrant i.e. 2nd quadrant. This line is nearer to the south line & away from the north line. So, the angle is measured in an anti-clockwise direction from the south line. 

To understand the position of line AB, the measured angle is denoted as S67°45'E 




 4. The line AB lies in the SW quadrant i.e. 3rd quadrant. This line is nearer to the south line & away from the north line. So, the angle is measured in a clockwise direction from the south line. 

To understand the position of line AB, the measured angle is denoted as NS42°W

 

From the above eg., you can observe that the angles in 1st & 4th quadrants are measured with reference to the north & angles in 2nd &3rd quadrants are measured from the south.

I hope you understood the concept.


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What is a Rawl plug? /FAQs related to Rawl plug.

 Let us go through some of the FAQs related to Rawl plug as below.

1. What is a rawl plug?



Rawl plug is a small tube-like product, used to secure the position of driven screws into the walls. They ensure a good grip for the driven screws so that they can take the applied loads, without slipping out of the wall.

Rawl plug is an advanced type of wall plug. They provide good anchorage to the screws driven within the wall or partitions. 


2. Why it is called rawl plug?

This particular type of wall plug was invented by John Joseph Rawlings in the year 1910. Using the first 4 letters of his last name, he called this product a Rawl plug. This plug became the household solution for fixing & hanging things on the walls.  He expanded the business & Rawl plug became the name of this product & his company.


3. What is a rawl plug made of?




In the earlier days, rawl plug was made of timber pieces. But nowadays, plastic or metal is used to manufacture the rawl plugs.

Plastic rawl plugs are widely used as they are cheaper, & are available in varied shapes & sizes.


4. How to use the correct size rawl plug for nailing?




When you purchase the rawl plug, you can observe the 3 nos. of holes punched over the product.

 These holes indicate the diameter of a drill bit and the maximum & minimum size of screws that should be used.

If you purchase them in the packet form, you will get a leaflet within that packet, having all the information for their usage. 



 

5. What is the cost of a rawl plug?

The cost of a rawl plug depends upon its size, type of material, purchase quantity, & quality of the product.



Considering all these factors, the cost of a Rawl plug ranges from,

Plastic rawl plug 👉   INR 3/- to INR 12/- per no.

Metal Rawl plug 👉  INR 10/- to INR 30/- per no.


6. Can the screw be longer than the rawl plugs?


Yes. It does not matter if the screw is slightly longer or shorter than the Rawl plug. But the dia. or size of the screw should match correctly with the specified Rawl plug thickness. 

The top edge of the Rawl plug should be in line with the wall surface. The depth of the drilled hole should be as according to the length of the Rawl plug so that, no voids were created after the plug insertion. 


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What is plum concrete?/ All about plum concrete.

 Let us go through some of the FAQs related to plum concrete in construction.

1. What is plum concrete?




Plum concrete is a normal concrete grade, containing 30 to 40% of plums as inert fillers. The term plum means the natural stone aggregates having a size not less than 160mm. In making plum concrete, clean & hard stones that have a size up to 300mm. are utilized.


2. Why do we use plum concrete?

Plum concrete is used to fill up the uneven pockets beneath the footings or foundations. If the foundation strata have a steep slope, it becomes necessary to make a leveled base for the structure.




 Making a foundation PCC beyond a certain thickness is unnecessary  & uneconomical. For the heavier structures like bridges, dams, & multi-storeyed buildings, to save the extra cost of constructing a leveled base, plum concrete is used.


3. What is the mix ratio of plum concrete?

As per IS-456 (2000), clause5.3.3, the size & percentage of plum are defined as given below.



Size of the plum 👉 160mm. to 300mm.

Concrete grade   👉  Normal PCC grade 

Usually, the M15 grade is used for heavier structures.

Percentage of plum within the concrete 👉   20% to 40%

Usually, 1/3rd volume (33%) of concrete is filled by the plum.


4. What is the procedure for doing plum concrete?

1. Stone selection:

The selected stones shall be free from dirt, chemical, & other organic impurities. The size of the stone should be above 160mm. & nearer to 300mm. It should be hard & sound without any cracks or fissures over the surface. The shape of the stone should be angular rather than round or flat for good bonding with the concrete. 


2. Preparing the strata:

The surface of the strata should be cleaned & washed with water to remove the dirt & loose materials. If the strata contain any deep pockets or cracks, the same shall be cleaned to remove unwanted soft soils or any organic matters adhered to them. 


3. Pouring the concrete:

A layer of concrete is placed over the strata to cover all the required areas. A formwork is done up to the needed level to hold the plum concrete.  

 



4. Laying boulder stones:

The boulder stones are laid over the concrete bed at regular intervals from each other. The minimum distance between the two adjacent stones should be 50mm. & it shall not exceed 150mm. The stones should not touch the formwork & you should maintain a minimum gap of 50mm. in between them.


5. Extending layers:

The second layer of concrete should be poured all over the laid stones. Care should be taken to fill all the voids or gaps in between the stones. If necessary, you can use needle vibrators to compact the concrete layers. 

The thickness of each layer should be ideally between 400mm. to 500mm. In any case, the thickness of each layer of boulder & concrete shall not exceed 900mm.


6. Finishing the top:

The same process should be repeated layer by layer until we reach the required top level of the plum concrete. The top layer should be finished in such a way that it should not contain any protruded boulder surface above the level. The boulder should be embedded at least 50mm. beneath the top concrete layer. 


7. Curing:

The plum concrete should be cured for a minimum period of 7 days or as specified.


5. How do you calculate plum concrete?

Let us consider 10 cum. of plum concrete for the calculation purpose.

a. Calculation by volume:

Let us fill 33% of the concrete volume with boulder stone (plum).

The volume of stone = 33% of the total volume

i.e. (33 ➗ 100) Χ 10cum = 3.3 m³

Let us take 30% extra for the voids while measuring volumetrically.

Therefore,

The total volume of stone required

= [3.3m³ + 30% of 3.3m³.]

= [3.3 +{ (30 ➗ 100) Χ 3.3}]

= [3.3 + 0.99]

= 4.29m³


The volume of cement concrete

 = [100% -33% ]of total volume

 = 67% 

i.e. (67 ➗ 100) Χ 10cum = 6.7 m³

Note: This is an approximate method, as the voids in between the irregular plum stones vary depending upon the size. However, we can consider 30% voids in rubble stones while adding them volumetrically.

 

b. Calculation by weight:

Quantity of concrete required

= [required volume Χ density of concrete]

= [6.7m³ Χ 2400kg/m³.]

= 16,080kg

= 16 tons.


Quantity of  stone required

= [required volume Χ density of stone]

= [6.7m³ Χ 1850 kg/m³.]

= 12395kg

= 12.4 tons.


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A Safe distance of the house from a high tension wire./Disadvantages caused by high tension wires.

1. What should be the safe distance of building from high tension wires?

There is a guideline for the minimum clearance required from the high tension lines for the construction of a building. The clearance varies depending upon the voltage category of the high tension lines.





As per IS-5613, Part-2, sec-1, the horizontal & vertical distance of the objects from the high tension wires are as follows.




 2. Can we buy a home or land near high tension wires?

The high tension wires produce an electromagnetic field & static electricity up to a certain range. We can buy or construct a building, beyond the advisable range from the high tension lines.

Before laying the high tension line, the concerned authority acquires up to 9m. of land on either side of the line as a passage. This space is required for periodic maintenance & to avoid any future accidents.  

 Before purchase, we have to check the documents for their legality. If the land is directly beneath the tension lines, there is a chance of encroachment, without taking permission from the concerned authority.


3. What are the disadvantages caused by the high tension wires?

1. The high tension wires create a humming sound, that may distract our sleep & mental peace.

2. It creates a kind of vibration, that can irritate a sensitive person, as our body is not harmonious to such frequency.

3. If you are within the danger zone, the electromagnetic waves distort your body cells, which gives rise to premature aging & cancer. 


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What is VDF flooring?/What is Tremix flooring?

 1. What is VDF or trimix flooring?




VDF stands for Vaccum dewatering concrete flooring. this is a special type of flooring in which the extra water present in the concrete is removed with the vacuum pump after the vibration. This technique helps to enhance the compressive strength, tensile strength, and abrasion resistance in flooring.  This process helps to achieve the required quality in the concrete.

The concrete used in making the flooring is not less than M20 grade. The trimix flooring surface has a good finished surface & longer life.


2. What is the thickness & ratio of trimix flooring?

The thickness of trimix floorings is kept between 100mm. to 200mm. depending upon the purpose & load conditions. Usually, 150mm. thickness is maintained for industrial purposes.

The concrete grades used in such types of floorings are M20, M25, & M30. The common grade is M20 i.e. 1: 1.5:3 ratio.


 3. What is the procedure for making trimix flooring?

1. Preparation of flooring base.

2. Laying guide rails at regular intervals at required levels. Usually, MS channels at 4m. intervals are installed by using a lineout string & leveling tools.

3. The concrete is poured in between the channel frames & leveled.

4. The concrete is compacted by using needle vibrators at the time of leveling.

5. Surface vibration is done by using double beam screed vibrators running over the channel rails. This helps to achieve maximum compaction.




6. Lower & top mat layers are spread over the green concrete.

7. Dewatering vacuum pump is attached to these layers to suck the surplus water.




8. This process is continued until stiff concrete is produced.

9. Power floater will be run over the surface to make a highly compacted floor level, having no lines or ribs.

10. Final finishing is done by using a power trowel to achieve a smooth & even surface.




11. Expansion joints are provided at required intervals while doing this flooring process. Groove cutting machines are used for this purpose.    



4. What are the pros & cons of trimix flooring?

Pros:

1. Trimix flooring has good compressive strength when compared to normal concrete flooring.

2. It has a good finished surface. 

3. It enhances the abrasion resistance of the floor.

4. No shrinkage cracks. 

5. Reduces the permeability of concrete due to higher compaction.


Cons:

1. The working cost will be more when compared to regular PCC flooring.

2. Requires specific machinery & equipment to complete the flooring work.

3. Needs skilled workers for vacuum dewatering & screeding works.



4. Where we can use trimix flooring?

Trimix floorings are made in such areas where there is a chance of higher wear & tear due to rough use of the space.

So, trimix floorings are mostly used in warehouses, industrial units, commercial centers, loading & unloading platforms, godowns, etc.


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How to calculate the total load over the columns?/ Total load over the columns in a two-way slab structure.

 Let us calculate the total load over the columns as shown below.





Given data:

Height of column = 2.7m.

Sectional dimension of the column = 230mm x 450mm. = 0.23m. x 0.45m.

No. of columns = 4 nos.


Calculation:

Lx /Ly = 4500mm. / 3000mm. 

           = 1.5 < 2.

Therefore it is a two-way slab.

The load distribution of the 2-way slab over the beams and columns is as shown below.


Total load over the columns

= [Self wt. of the column + superimposed load from the beams]


Here, 

a.) Self wt. of the column

= [(area of cross-section) × density of RCC]

= [ (0.23m. x 0.45m.) × 25 KN/m³]

2.588 KN/m.


Factored self wt. of the column

= [1.5 × 2.588KN/m.]

3.88 KN/m.


Total factored self-wt. of the column

= [ factored wt./m × height of the column]

= [3.88KN/m × 2.7m.]

10.476 KN.


b.) Load transferred from beam to the columns.

From the above drawing, you can observe that the load from beams B1 & B2 are equally distributed to all 4 columns of the structure.

So, the load transferred over an individual column

  = half of the [total load from beam B1 + from beam B2]

  = 1/2 × [ 75.69KN + 40.755KN]

Note: The above values of the load from the beams are taken from the article 👇

👀.  How to calculate the total load over the RCC beam?

 = 1/2 × [116.445]

 = 58.222KN.


Total factored load over the columns

= [Self wt. of the column + load from the beam]

= [ 10.476 + 58.23]

68.706 KN.

= (68.706 × 101.97) kg. 

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Why depth of the beam is kept more than the width?

 A. In Engineering terms:

The main function of the beam is to resist the moment formed by the load acting over them. When the beam resists the deflection, it creates a high moment over the beam.

So, the beams are designed to resist bending stresses with greater flexural rigidity.

Therefore, the most economical beam design is one, that provides a greater flexural rigidity with a minimal sectional area.

The rigidity is defined as EI,

 Where, 

  E = flexural modulus or modulus of elasticity in bending. 

   I = The second moment of area or moment of inertia of the given cross-section.

In other words, the capability of the beam depends upon the moment of inertia, where MI is the index to the resistance i.e. created within the beam. Greater the MI, more resistance to the moment is achieved in a beam.


For a given material, E is constant & the value of the moment of inertia (I) depends upon the sectional dimension of the beam.

i.e. I = [bd³ 12]

Here,

      b = sectional width of the beam.

      d = sectional depth of the beam.

As you can observe in the above formula, increasing the depth of the beam will be more effective & economical rather than increasing the width of the beam.

For eg:

 Let us consider 2 beams having the following dimensions.



1. Beam section-1

Breadth of the beam = b = 230mm.

Depth of the beam = d = 450mm.


 I =  [bd³ 12]

   = [ 230 x 450³ 12]

  I = 1.746 x 10 mm⁴.


2. Beam section-2

 Breadth of the beam = b = 450mm.

Depth of the beam = d = 230mm.

I =  [bd³  12]

   = [ 450 x 230³ ➗ 12]

  I = 0.456 x 10 mm⁴.

From the above calculation, we can understand that beam -1 has a greater moment of inertia than beam-2 having the same sectional area.


So, designing a beam having a greater depth-to-width ratio is more economical.


B. In general terms:

Let us take a plastic measuring scale as shown below.



Usually, the thickness of the scale is 3 to 5mm. & width is about 28 to 32mm.

 Try to bend the scale having the width in the vertical position. Hardly you can bend the scale, & if you can, it will be very negligible.

Now, keep the width in the horizontal plane and try to bend the scale. You can deflect the scale until it gets broken down. 




Here, in both cases, the sectional area of the scale is the same. But by changing the orientation of the scale, we have created flexural rigidity within the scale.

 The scale resists the moments when the measurement along the vertical axis is greater than the horizontal axis.

As the loads in the beam act in a vertical direction, the same concept is applied to design a beam. So, to build an efficient beam, the depth of the beam is kept more than its width.


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What are charcoal panels?

  1. What are charcoal panels?


Charcoal panels are interior cladding products having an appearance of a metallic surface. They are made by having a 3D embossed pattern layer with color coatings. 

Charcoal panels can be used to decorate all types of interiors like walls, cabinets, partitions, tables, kitchen cupboards, etc. 


2. What are the specification or dimensions of charcoal panels?

The standard dimension of charcoal panels are

 The thickness  👉 4mm.,  6mm.

             Length 👉   8' ( 2400mm.)

               Width 👉   2', 3', & 4' ( 600mm. to 1200mm.)


3. What is the market price of charcoal panels?

Charcoal panels are available in the price range of INR 2000/- to 5000/- per sheet depending upon the surface pattern, thickness & size. 

The average price of the standard quality panels is INR 160/- per sq. ft. 

 

4. What are the advantages & disadvantages of charcoal panels?

Advantages:

1. Light weight & cost-effective. 

2.  Easy to install. 

3. Abrasion resistance.

4. Royal appearance due to 3D designs having a metallic effect.

5. Eco-friendly.

5. Easy to clean & maintain.

6. Offers a variety of designs.




Disadvantages:

1. Cannot be refurbished.

2. Sharp objects may damage or mar the surface.


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What are plastic paver blocks?

 1. What are plastic paver blocks?




These are the paver blocks that are manufactured by utilizing scrap recyclable plastics. The melted plastics are pressed into the required patterns by using the molds. Here, cement or any bonding agent is not used to form the blocks. 

They are available in different interlocking shapes & sizes similar to the concrete paver blocks. 


2. How the plastic paver blocks are made?




The scrap plastics are segregated as per their type & classification. By using the shredder & the grinder machine, the plastic is crushed into smaller pieces. These plastic chunks are fused with the sand in the extrusion machine at a temp. range of 200° to 250°C. Normally, the ratio of plastic & sand will be kept at a 30:70 proportion. 




The extruded molten mass is placed in the paver molds & pressed under the compression machine. Once cooled, the blocks are taken out of the mold & stacked.





3. What are the pros & cons of plastic paver blocks?

Pros:

1. Environment friendly, as its production helps to reduce the thrown away waste plastics.

2. Available in mixed color patterns, that give a different look to the installed area. 



3. Won't split or crack.

4. Waterproof & impermeable. 

5. Chemical & acid-proof.


Cons:

1. The life span of plastic paver blocks is lower when compared to concrete pavers.

2. It cannot resist wear & tear due to higher traffic conditions.

3. They get damaged by sharp metallic objects.

4. Plastic paver blocks cannot resist higher temp. & are prone to fire hazards.

5. If ignited cigarette butts are thrown over them, they may create burned scars over the blocks.


4. Where we can use plastic paver blocks?

Plastic paver blocks can be used in the garden pathways, residential car parking, patios, to cover the loading & unloading platforms in industrial buildings, etc. 

The plastic paver blocks should be avoided on the public footpaths, commercial & public buildings, & in heavy traffic areas. 


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What are WPC timber tubes? - their specification & market price.

 1. What are WPC timber tubes?




WPC stands for wood polymer composites. They are manufactured by fusing hardwood fibers & polymer resins. WPC tubes are mostly used for creating indoor partition walls. The other applications are in creating decorative walls & ceilings, to provide an architectural touch to your interior.

By using these tubes, we can create partitions to provide a semi-privacy & royal look to the building interiors.


2. What are the specifications or dimensions of WPC tubes?




The standard dimension of WPC timber tubes are

 The length  👉 2850mm, 2900mm., & 2950mm.

          Width 👉  50mm. or 100mm.

          Depth or thickness 👉  50mm., 75mm. and 100mm.


3. What is the market price of WPC timber tubes?

The cost depends upon the texture, material quality & dimension of the products. 

The market price starts from INR 850/- per No. & goes up to INR 1800/- per No.

WPC timber tubes of  std. quality & dimensions are available at INR 1200/- piece.


4. What are the pros & cons of WPC timber tubes?

Pros:

1. Easy to install.

2. Prefinished & ready to use.

3. Waterproof & termite-proof.

4. Natural wood appearance.

5. Low maintenance & easy to clean.

6. No painting or polishing is required.

7. Available in a variety of designs & color shades.

8. They won't crack, rot, or wrap. 


Cons:

1. The cost is on the higher side when compared to other materials.

2. They have a low resistance to extreme temperature in comparison to wood.



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Flooring options without breaking the existing one./ Upgrade your flooring without removing the older one.

1. What are the different types of flooring options without altering the existing one?

The different types of flooring options are

 1. Vinyl flooring.

2. Laminated wooden flooring.

3. SPC floorings.

4. LVT flooring.

5. 3D epoxy flooring.

6. Artificial grass.

All these types are installed easily & conveniently over the existing one. To know in detail regarding each of these floorings, click over them to open the new window.  


2. Can we make tile flooring over the existing tile layers?

Yes. You can make tile flooring over the existing tile layers. But here, you must compromise with the headroom height of the interior. Another problem you have to face is the shortening of door openings (3" to 4"). 



Nowadays, several types of bonding agents are available to install the tiles over the existing layers. This helps to avoid breaking of older tiles & mortar layers. But here, the increased height of the floor levels is around 1.5" to 2".



The best decision is to go for any one of the above-mentioned synthetic flooring options.


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What are laminated wooden floorings?

 1. What are laminated wooden floorings?




Laminated wooden floorings are synthetic floors, that are manufactured to have a wooden appearance.

The core material of wooden planks is made of 

MDF 👉 medium-density fiberboard or 

HDF  👉 high-density fiberboard. 

The wear layer is made of abrasion-resistant laminates. The wooden floorings are classified into various grades depending upon the abrasion class of laminates.




 They are 👉  AC1, AC2, AC3, AC4, AC5, and AC6.

Where AC stands for abrasion class.

   

2. What are the specification or dimensions of laminated wooden floorings?

The standard dimension of laminated wooden flooring planks are

 The thickness  👉 6mm. to 15mm.

             Length 👉 1215mm.

               Width 👉  195mm.


3. What is the market price of laminated wooden flooring?

The cost of the flooring material depends upon the different grades of the laminate and fibreboard density. The cost increases as you go for the higher abrasion class laminates.

 The Indian market is captured by the materials made in 4 different countries. They are China, India, Malaysia & Germany. The China-made materials are cheaper & they are available around INR 40/- per sqft. The German flooring materials are costlier of all 4 origins.

The floorings are made in different patterns such as regular, herringbone, & customized patterns. The regular patterns fall in a normal price range & customized patterns cost you more. 

So, depending upon the above factors, the cost of material ranges from INR 40/- sqft. to INR 480/- per sqft.


4. What are the advantages & disadvantages of wooden flooring?

Advantages:

1. Cost-effective when compared to hardwood flooring.

2.  Easy to install. 

3. Abrasion resistance.

4. Royal appearance.

5. Easy to clean & maintain

6. Offers a variety of designs.


Disadvantages:

1. Cannot be refurbished.

2. Not moisture-proof.


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What are fiber optic star ceiling lights?

 Let us go through some of the FAQs related to the fiber optic star ceiling lights.


1. What are fiber optic ceiling lights?




Fiber optic star ceiling lights are ceiling-mounted lighting systems to create a galaxy effect with twinkling stars.   


2. Does fiber-optic light get hotter?




No. fiber optic lights do not create any heating effect due to the light transmitted through them. Optic fibers do not carry any current within the body. 

  

3. Is fiber optic lights better than LED?

No. LED lights are the most energy-efficient when compared to fiber optic lights.

LED light consumes 9 to 18watts of energy to produce 3600 footcandles. The fiber optics consume nearly 150watts to produce 6500 footcandles.

In LED lights, there is a broader distribution of light throughout the area, while in optical fibers, the illumination is produced by the controlled & directional passage of light through the core.


4. What is the working principle of fiber optic star ceiling lights?

The optical cables are made of plastic or glass to transmit the lights from the source. The fibers are comprised of an inner core body that is cladded by the outer coatings. 

Fiber optic light works on two basic principles of light. i.e. refraction & total internal reflection. The coating over the core has a lower refraction index than the core. The one end of the fiber is connected to the light source known as a light engine or light driver. 

When the light travels through the core, there will be total internal reflectance of light due to the outer cladding. This continual reflection creates the required illumination as the light transmits within the core.


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