All about civil construction knowledge- PARAM VISIONS

All about precast RCC boundary walls./ What are precast compound walls?

 1. What is a precast RCC compound wall?

The precast compound wall contains two parts. They are column & slab panels as shown in the images. The precast materials are manufactured in the factory or in any production unit. When they are ready, brought to the required construction site or land and installed by assembling them.

2. What are the advantages & disadvantages of the precast compound walls?


1. Easy to install

The precast wall manufacturers take care of the installation. So, there is no need to find contractors or laborers.

2. Less time: 

It takes less than 20% of the time to install when compared to brick walls. 

3. Less cost:

When compared to brick walls, a precast boundary wall saves nearly 40% of the total money.

4. Less space: 

The precast slabs are only 2 inches in their thickness. So, the precast wall occupies less space in installation. 

5. Reusable: 

As precast walls are assembled products, you can remove & relocate them whenever necessary.

6. Aesthetic: 

The precast panels can be molded in different colors & designs. You can combine those colors & patterns to enhance the architectural view.


1. Availability: 

The precast production unit may be far distant from your construction site. They are not readily available in all parts of the region.

2. Handling: 

Utmost care is needed while transporting, loading & unloading these precast products.

3. Retaining earth: 

They are not good at retaining the unequal ground pressure during the rainy season.

3. What are the dimensions & specifications of the precast boundary wall?

The length of the precast column may vary from 1500mm. to 2400mm. as shown in the drawing. The columns are 150mm. × 150mm. in their size having slots to hold the slab panels.

The thickness of the slab panels is usually made of 50mm. ( 2") as shown in the below-given drawing. The standard length is kept at 2100mm. ( 7 ft.) having 300mm. ( 1 ft. ) in their breadth. 

The dimension of the precast panel or slab  👉  2100mm. × 300mm. × 50mm.

The shape of the column slot is made slightly tapered. The size of the inner edge of the column slot is kept equal to the slab thickness. The standard width of the slot is made of  60mm. at the outer end & 50mm. at the inner edge. ( as shown in the drawing.)

4. What is the cost of precast boundary walls?

The cost of the precast boundary wall ranges from INR 80/- to 120/- per sq ft. 

Go through the article 👇

The factors that affect the cost of the precast compound walls are,

1. Its availability & transportation cost.

2. Height & length of the precast wall.

3. Type of pattern, color, & design.

4. Quality & brand value of manufacturer.


What is vinyl flooring?/ What is PVC flooring?

 1. What is vinyl flooring?

The word Vinyl used in the flooring is a short form of polyvinyl chloride i.e. commonly known as PVC.  So vinyl flooring and PVC flooring are made of the same synthetic material. 

These flooring materials are manufactured by rolling the PVC spread, blended with appropriate compounds & colors. 

2. Where we can use vinyl flooring?

Vinyl flooring can be used in all types of building interiors to cover the flooring areas. The vinyl flooring is used in public transport systems to cover the metallic base. You might have observed in the Indian railways, where vinyl flooring is used as a cover material.

It cannot be used in the industrial working areas, as they are not able to resist heat & impact actions.

 3. What are the available types or forms of PVC vinyl flooring?

Vinyl floorings are available in 3 different forms.

1.  PVC vinyl plank flooring:

You will get them in long strip forms, having a narrow size in their widths.

2. PVC vinyl roll or sheet flooring:

They come in rolls similar to carpets.  They don't have grooves or joints as we find them in tiles.

3. PVC vinyl tile flooring:

They are tile-shaped pieces of vinyl flooring similar to ceramic or stone tiles.

4. What are the advantages & disadvantages of PVC vinyl flooring?


1. The installation process is easy in comparison to other types of flooring. 

2. Removing the existing vinyl flooring & reinstalling with any new design can be done easily.

3. Vinyl flooring can be cleaned effortlessly. 

4. Vinyl flooring needs little maintenance as they have stain-resistant characters.

5. We get a soft feeling while we walk, as they have resilient properties. 

6. In all types of climatic conditions, the surface temperature of the vinyl flooring will be pleasant. 

7. You have got wider options to choose from, as they come in a variety of designs, colors, & patterns.


1. When compared to stone or tile flooring, the life span of vinyl flooring is shorter, i.e. about 10 to 15 years.

2. The color of the vinyl flooring gets faded away if they are exposed to direct sunlight.

3. The vinyl flooring gets damaged if they come in contact with flames or higher temperatures.

4.  The accidental fall of any sharp objects may create dents or scratches over them.

5.  If not installed properly, the vinyl flooring may get peeled off or may open at the joints.

5. What are the points to check or procedures to follow, for the vinyl flooring installation?


1. The base of the flooring area should be even & smooth. If there are any pits or dents over the existing base, they should be filled with suitable resins & grouts.

2. The base flooring should be cleaned properly, & if possible it should be washed to remove all the dirt.

3. The base area should be left to become completely dry, after cleaning.

4. The SR adhesive should be applied uniformly over the base with a trowel.

5. All the doors & windows should be kept open while working, as the adhesive emits volatile compounds.

6. The SR adhesive should be applied over the backside of the vinyl planks or rolls.

7. The PVC vinyl flooring should be installed starting from one end, & care should be taken to match the joints.

8. The joints should be kept in alternate patterns to provide a good grip & look to the flooring.

9. The vinyl flooring should be pressed uniformly by applying hand pressure so that there will be good bonding.

Note: For the self-adhesive type of vinyl material, there is no need to apply glues.


Calculating the cost of installing precast compound wall./Cost of the precast compound wall for 1-acre of land.

 Let us now calculate the cost of the precast boundary wall for the below-given land area.

Given data:

Length of  side AB = CD = 250 ft.

Length of side AD = BC = 174.24 ft.

Height of precast wall = 5 ft.

Area of rectangular land 

      = [length × breadth]

     = [250 ft. × 174.24 ft.]

     = 43,560 sq ft. = 1 acre

[ As 1acre = 43,560 sq ft.]

Perimeter of land 

 = [side AB + side BC + side CD + side DA]

= [250 ft. + 174.24 ft. + 250 ft. + 174.24 ft.]

848.48 ft.

Length of precast wall 

= [perimeter of land - gate opening]

= [ 848.48 ft. - 15 ft.]

= 833.48 ft.

Area of precast compound wall

= [length of the precast wall × height of wall]

= [ 833.48 ft. × 5 ft.]

= 4167.40 sq ft.

The market rate for installing precast RCC compound wall varies from INR 80/-  to 120/- per sq ft.

Let us consider an average rate of INR 100/- per sq ft.

 Cost of installing the precast compound wall

= [area of precast wall in sq ft. × rate/sq ft.]

= [ 4167.40 sq ft. × 100/-]

= INR 4,16,740/-



How much does it cost to fence one acre of land?/ What will be the cost of fencing per acre?

 Now, let us find out the answer for one of the FAQs "What will be the cost of fencing per acre?"

My response is, 👉 This is a non-answerable wrong question.

The reason is, the area of any land does not define its perimeter. The cost differs from one land to another having the same measured area.

I will illustrate this with the following 2 examples.

1. Land no 1:

Given data:

Length of  side AB = CD = 208 ft.

Length of side AD = BC = 209.42 ft.

Area of rectangular land 

      = [length × breadth]

     = [209.42 ft. × 208 ft.]

     = 43,560 sq ft. = 1 acre

[ As 1acre = 43,560 sq ft.]

Perimeter of land no 1.

 = [side AB + side BC + side CD + side DA]

= [208 ft. + 209.42 ft. + 208 ft. + 209.42 ft.]

= 834.84 ft.

 2. Land no 2:

Given data:

Length of  side AB = CD = 80 ft.

Length of side AD = BC = 544.5 ft.

Area of rectangular land 

      = [length × breadth]

     = [544.5 ft. × 80 ft.]

     = 43,560 sq ft. = 1 acre

[ As 1acre = 43,560 sq ft.]

The perimeter of land no 2.

 = [side AB + side BC + side CD + side DA]

= [80 ft. + 544.5 ft. + 80 ft. + 544.5 ft.]

= 1249 ft.

Now, let us consider installing a barbed-wire fence of the same height for both types of land.

Before proceeding further, go through the article👇

👀. Estimation & costing of barbed wire fencing for land./ Calculating the cost of barbed wire fencing for the land. (part 4).

1. Cost of fencing for land 1

= [ perimeter  × fence cost/ r ft.]

= [ 834.84 ft.  × 114.65/-]

= INR 95,714.4/-

2. Cost of fencing for land 2

= [ perimeter  × fence cost/ r ft.]

= [ 1249 ft.  × 114.65/-]

= INR 1,43,197.85/-

Note: The fencing cost / r ft. is taken from the above-linked article.

 The difference in the fencing cost of land 1 & land 2

= [1,43,197.85 - 95, 714.4]

= 47,483.45/-

i.e. whopping 49.6% difference in the fencing cost of the 1-acre of land having different dimensions.

I hope you understood why we cannot answer this question.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.


What is an anti- bird net? / What is a balcony safety net?/Anti pigeon net for balconies.

 1. What is an anti-bird net for a balcony?

The net i.e. used to protect the balconies from the entry of birds especially, the pigeon is said to be an anti-bird net.

They are also referred to by the name balcony safety nets or anti pigeon nets. These nets are made of polymer plastic or nylon material. 

You can use these nets to cover any part of the building, like balconies, passages, plumbing ducts, ventilators, etc., to protect them from bird entry. Anti-bird nets can be used to cover the open electrical wiring system so that birds won't get electrocuted.

 Additionally, they act as a balcony safety net by providing protection for the children by falling.

2. What is the available colors of the anti-bird net?

The anti-bird nets are mainly available in 5 colors. They are black, blue, white, red & green.

3. What is the size of the anti-bird net?

The width of the net 👉  1m. to 25m.

The length of the net 👉  5m. to 1000m. or as per your choice.

 The widely available anti-bird nets are usually 10 ft. in height with roped borders. You can choose the length according to your requirement. 

The mesh hole or netted openings may vary from 15mm. to 50mm. in their size. The thickness of the net ranges from 0.5mm. to 5mm.

4. What is the price of an anti-bird net?

Anti-bird nets are available in the price range of INR 4/- to 20/- per sq ft. depending upon the quality, type of material, net openings, & thickness. If you want to purchase them by weight, they are available at INR 400/- to 1000/- per kg.

If you want to purchase them online, these nets are available in different sizes. For your understanding, I have given the link of 3 different sizes of the anti-bird net available on Amazon.

Before clicking, check the length & breadth of your balcony with some extra length for clipping.

1. 20 ft. × 10 ft.

2. 15 ft. × 10 ft.

3. 6 ft. × 10 ft.

5. What is the designs or netting patterns of the anti-bird nets?

The anti-bird nets are mostly weaved in three types of patterns. They are

a.   Square or rectangle patterns.

The mesh openings are square or rectangle in size.

b.  Hexagonal pattern.

The netted openings are hexagonal in their design.

c.  Diamond pattern.

They contain diamond-shaped net openings.

The anti-bird nets are again classified as,

a.  Knotted type 👉    Netted or weaved by knots as shown in the image.

b.  Knotless type 👉    Netted or designed without knots.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day 😄.


Different types of septic tanks based on materials./What are different types of septic tanks?

 Septic tanks are classified into 4 main types based on the materials used in their construction. They are

1. RCC septic tanks.

2. Plastic septic tanks.

3. Steel septic tanks.

4. Fiber-reinforced septic tanks.

1. RCC septic tank:

These are the widely used type of septic tanks due to their added advantages. The heavier structure & tension-taking properties of the RCC septic tank make them fit for all types of weather & soil conditions.

RCC septic tanks are available in different shapes, dimensions & capacities. The most common shapes are rectangular & cylindrical as shown in the images.

Transporting & installation of precast septic tanks need more care while handling them. They are durable, rustproof, & have good chemical resistance characters.

They are good at resisting buoyant force acting over them from all sides. 

2. Plastic septic tank:

Usually, polyethylene plastics are used in manufacturing these types of tanks. The plastic septic tanks are lighter in weight when compared to RCC & steel tanks. These tanks are easier to transport & install as they are nearly 3 times lighter than RCC septic tanks.

Plastic septic tanks are rustproof and have good chemical resistance properties. They cost less when compared to all other types of septic tanks. 

The main limitations of these types of tanks are, they cannot bear the high external pressure exerted over them. You have to avoid using them in collapsible type soft soils, especially in the heavy rainfall areas, where there is a continuous flow of water.  

3. Steel septic tank:

Nowadays, steel septic tanks are rarely used due to their high cost & lower life span. They get rusted and fail by creating punctures at the corroded areas.  Due to their drawbacks, steel septic tanks are getting replaced by the other three types.

4. Fiber-reinforced septic tank:

Due to the reinforcement of fiberglass, they are tougher & stronger in withstanding the external pressures when compared to plastic septic tanks. Similar to the plastic tanks, they are rustproof, waterproof, & lighter in their weight.

Fiber-reinforced septic tanks are easier to handle & install. Comparatively, they cost slightly more than plastic tanks.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day😄.


How to calculate distance & area of land using Google earth pro?/ Calculating distance & area on the map.

 Let us now calculate the distance & area of land using the ruler symbol on Google earth pro.

Before proceeding further, go through the article 👇

Part 1: Calculating area & perimeter of land using Google earth pro.

as this is the continuation of part 1.

1.  After step no. 3 in part 1, select the ruler symbol as shown in the image below. Under ruler, again you have to select polygon in the white table as shown. Square box with crosshair will pop up. 

2. Mark the boundary of the land with the crosshair box as shown below. Double click at the endpoints to complete the boundary marking.

3. You will get the perimeter & inner area of the marked boundary as shown below. Select the units as per your requirement.

4. To calculate the distance between any 2 given points, you have to select the path under the ruler symbol as shown below. I have measured the distance of the diagonal of land under the path.

5. The calculated length is displayed in the units you have selected as shown below.

By using this method, you can calculate the distance of land or objects from any given locality.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day😄.


Calculating area & perimeter of land using Google earth pro.

 By using Google earth pro, we can calculate the area & perimeter of land or any structures easily. You can do the calculation within 2 minutes by sitting at one place without visiting the land.

Let us now observe the step-by-step calculation procedure on Google earth pro.

1. Open Google earth pro on your laptop, computer, or on any other device screen.

2. Enter the name & locality of the particular place as shown in the image below.

I have entered the name of Belgavi city of Karnataka state & zoomed the map. Type the locality where the land ( you want to calculate) exists.

3. Zoom until the land or the structure becomes clearly visible.  If you want to save the calculation, enter any name for that land as shown in the image below.

4. Select the polygon symbol & you will find that crosshair will pop out. Cover the area of the land with that crosshair as shown in the image.

5. Select the measurement box and choose any particular units like meter, feet, yard, sqm., sq ft., etc. You will get the calculated length of perimeter & area in that particular unit which you have selected.

6. I have selected the feet & square feet units to know the perimeter & area of the land as shown below.

By following this procedure, you can find out the area & perimeter of any structures, land, plot, etc. within few minutes.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day😄.


What are laterite stone blocks? - Their advantages, disadvantages, price, & size.

 1.  What are laterite stone blocks?

Laterite stones are manual or machine-cut block pieces from the quarries or mines containing lateritic crusts.

Laterite is a soft rock composed of iron & aluminum oxides as the main ingredient. Due to the weathering actions, in hot & wet tropical areas, lateritic soil gradually gains strength to become a hard mass. 

These hard layers of laterite are cut into blocks of required sizes & transported for the building construction works.

2.  What are the advantages & disadvantages of laterite stone blocks?


1. They keep the building cool in the summer season as they are quarried natural stones.

2. Laterite stones have good thermal insulation properties.

3. The stone provides a rustic natural look to the building.

4. The stone hardens & gains strength as time progresses.

5. Due to its larger size, it is cost-effective by reducing labor & other material charges.

6. Plastering is not compulsory for laterite masonry works.

7. Environment friendly as they do not emit CO2 & greenhouse gases.


1. The strength of the block is not uniform.

2. Laterite stone blocks are available in limited regions.

3. Stone dressing is needed before masonry work to match the sizes.

4. Laterite stones are avoided in multistory buildings due to their weight & chemical composition. 

3.  How laterite stone blocks are made?

Nowadays, laterite stone blocks are cut by using machines as shown in the image below.

Laterite stone quarry.

The line is drawn in both the axis over the cutting ground & the string is tied as a boundary marker. The machine moves over the railing Patti, cutting the laterite layer in a straight given line. Once the stone is cut as per the required size in both the axis, the stone blocks are pulled out using a spade & pickaxe.

Stone cutting machine.

4.  What is the price of laterite stone blocks?

The rate of laterite stone block ranges from INR 18/- to 30/- depending upon the quality & available region.

  The price of  1st quality stone blocks 👉   INR 25/-  to 30/-

   The price of  2nd quality stone blocks 👉   INR 18/-  to 24/-     

5.  What are the available dimensions of laterite stone blocks?

The laterite stones as such do not come in a defined dimension. 

The size of the laterite stone block varies depending upon the locality, cutting process, & hardness of the laterite layer.

For your reference, I am giving some of the available sizes as below.

Standard size 👇

                     12" × 8" × 8"

                     12"× 8" × 9"

                     16" × 9" × 6"

Other sizes  👇

                    12" × 9" × 7"

                    12" × 8" × 6"

                    15" × 9" × 6" etc.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day😄.


What is a valuation of a property? - Different methods, purpose & factors affecting valuation of a property.

1. What is a valuation of property?

Valuation is a procedure to determine the value of a particular property by using different evaluation methods.


 In other words, estimating the value of a property in terms of money, at a present-day rate, allowing suitable depreciation.

2. What are the factors that affect the property valuation?

The different factors that affect the valuation of property are,

1. Geographical location of the property.

2. Demand & supply of property in a particular locality.

3. Size, area, or dimension of the property.

4. Type of land & construction cost.

5. Age, durability & type of building structure.

6. Improvements or basic amenities provided by government bodies.

7. Infrastructure & easy accessibility to the nearer towns, cities or market places.

8. Future developments or schemes decided by the governing authorities.

3. What is the purpose of the valuation of a property?

The valuation of a property is needed for the following seven purposes.

1. To know the selling price of the property by the owner or seller.

2. To mortgage the property by financial institutions to lend money to the property owner.

3. To know the buying price of the property by a purchaser.

4. To fix the rent or lease value of a particular property.

5.  To determine the valuation of a property for taxation purposes by the government bodies or local authorities.

6. The valuation is necessary at the time of acquisition of a property by the government to pay the compensation.

7. Valuation helps to determine the insurance amount & monthly installment for a given time period.

4. What are the different methods of valuation?

The different methods of valuation are,

1. The rental method of valuation.

2. Valuation based on profit.

3. Direct comparison with the capital value.

4. Depreciation method of valuation.

5. Valuation based on the cost.

6. Book value method of valuation.

7. Development method of property valuation.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day😄.


Classification of paver blocks. / What are the different types of paver blocks?

 The interlocking paver blocks can be divided into 5 main categories based on

A. The materials used in their production.

B. Thickness & grade.

C. Patterns & use.

D. Shapes & locking. 

E. Manufacturing process.

A.  Raw materials used:

1. Plastic paver blocks:

These types of paver blocks are made of recycled waste plastics. They are environment-friendly, as they help in reducing unwanted plastic waste.

2. Concrete paver blocks:

The most common type of paver blocks, widely used all over the world. Concrete paver blocks are tough, strong, durable, and they can sustain all types of climatic conditions.

3. Clay paver blocks:

After molding the clay material with pigments & other ingredients, they are vitrified in a kiln at high temperatures. These types of paver blocks find limited usage & are used to bring a traditional look to the paved area.

4. Stone paver blocks:

Natural stones are carved & cut to manufacture these types of paver blocks.

5. Rubber paver blocks:

Recycled rubber is used to manufacture such types of paver blocks. Pigments of different colors are added to improve their appearance. 

B. Thickness & grade:

The paver blocks are manufactured in different mix grades & thicknesses to satisfy the traffic conditions & load over them. They are classified as 

1. Heavy-duty paver blocks:

Mix grade 👉 M50, M55.

Thickness  👉   90mm to 120mm.

Used in heavy traffic & load conditions.

2. Medium duty paver blocks:

Mix grade 👉 M40,  M45.

Thickness  👉  70mm to 85mm.

Used in medium traffic & load conditions.

3. Light duty paver blocks:

Mix grade 👉 M30, M35.

Thickness  👉  50mm to 65mm.

Used in light traffic & load conditions.

C. Patterns & use:

1. Regular paver blocks:

These types of paver blocks are interlocked or packed with each other having no gaps at the joints. They are installed in all types of parking areas, footpaths, basements, etc. where vehicular or human traffic is much more.

2. Permeable paver blocks:

As the name suggests, they allow water to drain in between them. Permeable paver blocks are used in gardens, pathways, backyards, etc. where there is no vehicular traffic. Vegetation or grass is grown in between the paver blocks as shown in the above image.

D. Shapes & locking:

1. Type A:

These types of paver blocks have plain edges on all the faces. They do not interlock with each other.

2. Type B:

They have alternate plain faces & curved edges. Type B paver blocks can be paved in a defined pattern.

3. Type C:

All faces have curved edges to interlock with each other on all sides. Type-C paver blocks can be paved in any pattern.

E. Manufacturing process:

1. Rubber molded paver blocks:

The molds used in manufacturing them are made of rubber, plastics, or silicone material. After filling the molds with the concrete, the compaction is done by using vibratory tables. The manufactured product has smooth edges having a glossy finished surface. 

2. Machine pressed paver blocks:

The pavers are manufactured by pressing them under a hydraulic machine to gain the required compaction. Usually, the molds are made of MS or steel materials. Here, the pavers of various designs & patterns can be manufactured in bulk quantity.

Thank you for going through this article. Have a good day😄.



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